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Microwave-assisted extraction for qualitative and quantitative determination of brominated flame retardants in styrenic plastic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3572-7798
Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería del Diseño (ETSID), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
2009 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 78, no 1, 33-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fast method for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in styrenic polymers using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) was developed. Different extraction parameters (extraction temperature and time, type of solvent, particle size) were first optimised for standard high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) samples containing known amounts of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE). Complete extraction of TBBPA was achieved using a combination of polar/non-polar solvent system (isopropanol/n-hexane) and high extraction temperatures (130 degrees C). Lower extraction yields were, however, obtained for Deca-BDE, due to its high molecular weight and its non-polar nature. The developed method was successfully applied to the screening of BFRs in standard plastic samples from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): TBBPA could be fully recovered, and Deca-BDE could be identified, together with minor order polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 78, no 1, 33-39 p.
Keyword [en]
Microwave-assisted extraction, Brominated flame retardants, Polymers, HPLC-UV, accelerated solvent-extraction, organic-compounds, identification, samples, contaminants
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18199DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.10.038ISI: 000263634700004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-58549089176OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18199DiVA: diva2:336245
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 Polymeric waste materials should be considered resources for the manufacture of new products through recycling processes, with a similar status as virgin fossil-based plastics and biopolymers from renewable resources. Several efforts can be done to achieve this qualitative quantum leap and introduce recycled products in the market with competitive performance. Detailed scientific knowledge about the degradation processes to which polymeric materials are subjected under their life cycle is important when discussing their further waste recovery possibilities and the performance of recycled plastic. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the quality assessment of recycled plastics is fundamental to guarantee their performance in new applications. Three key quality properties have been previously defined for this quality analysis: degree of mixing (composition), degree of degradation, and presence of low molecular weight compounds (degradation products, contaminants, additives).A dual experimental approach employing multiple processing and thermooxidation is proposed to model the life cycle of recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) used in packaging applications, and in electrical and electronic equipment (E&E). Both reprocessing and thermo-oxidative degradation are responsible for coexistent physical and chemical effects (chain scission, crosslinking, apparition of oxidative moieties, polymeric chain rearrangements, and probably physical ageing) on the microstructure and morphology of polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene (PS) phases; these effects ultimately influence the long-term stability, and the rheological and mechanical behaviour of HIPS. The PB phase has proved to be the initiation point of HIPS degradation throughout the life cycle. Thermo-oxidation seems to have more severe effects on HIPS properties; therefore, it can be concluded that previous service life may be the part of the life cycle with the greatest influence on the recycling possibilities and performance of HIPS recyclates in second-market applications.Different strategies are presented for the quality analysis of recycled styrenic polymers from packaging waste and electrical and electronic equipment. The results from the life cycle degradation simulation were compared with those obtained from real samples from a large-scale mechanical recycling plant. The presence and emission of low molecular weight compounds from recycled HIPS from packaging waste has been critically discussed using solvent and headspace extraction procedures. Special attention has been devoted to the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled HIPS from electrical and electronic equipment using advanced extraction and chromatographic techniques, due to the legislative and environmental implications of these additives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 57 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:63
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4895 (URN)978-91-7415-112-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-17 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved

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Vilaplana, FranciscoKarlsson, Sigbritt

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