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Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
Ecoloop AB.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
Ecoloop AB.
2009 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 7, 2071-2077 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case Studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash Was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled oil forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009. Vol. 29, no 7, 2071-2077 p.
Keyword [en]
life-cycle assessment, road construction, solid-waste, decision-making, by-products, bottom ash, methodology, sweden, input, model
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18462DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.006ISI: 000266468400011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67349225121OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18462DiVA: diva2:336509
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2004-1779
Note

QC 20100525

Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI).A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed.Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu binding than previously understood. Differences were also observed between MSWI bottom ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the geochemical speciation models SHM and NICA-Donnan are calibrated. Revised parameter values for speciation modelling are therefore suggested. Additions of salt or natural DOM in the influent did not change the leachate concentration of Cu. Thus, although Cl and natural DOM might be present in the influent in the field due to road salting or infiltration of soil water, this is of minor importance for the potential environmental impact from MSWI bottom ash.This thesis allows estimates of long-term leaching and toxicity to be improved and demonstrates the need for broadening the system boundaries in order to highlight the trade-offs between different types of impact. For decisions on whether incinerator residues should be utilised or landfilled, the use of a life cycle perspective in combination with more detailed assessments is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 54 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1046
Keyword
MSWI bottom ash, wood ash, recycling, LCA, environmental assessment, geochemical speciation modelling, dissolved organic matter, copper (Cu)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9155 (URN)978-91-7415-121-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-17, Lecture hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100914Available from: 2008-10-08 Created: 2008-09-25 Last updated: 2010-09-14Bibliographically approved

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Gustafsson, Jon Petter

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