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Metal removal by bed filter materials used in domestic wastewater treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 166, no 2-3, 734-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Used materials, which are enriched with phosphorus, can be used as a fertiliser or soil amendment. However the materials can also be enriched with metals from the wastewater. Six materials (opoka, sand, Polonite (R), limestone, two types of blast furnace slag) exposed to long-term wastewater loading in columns and in a compact filter well filled with Polonite were investigated for metal removal and accumulation. Wastewater applied to the columns had low heavy metal concentrations in the order Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cr. All columns were able to remove 53%-83% of Zn except those filled with sand. Polonite demonstrated a high removal capacity of Mn (>98%), while only the slag materials were able to remove Ni. All materials showed increased Cu, Cr(III). Mn. Pb and Zn content after filtration. Speciation calculations showed that high concentrations of dissolved organic matter might have prevented efficient metal removal, particularly in the case of Cu. The low content of toxic heavy metals in the studied filter materials studied would probably not restrict their use as a fertiliser or soil amendment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 166, no 2-3, 734-739 p.
Keyword [en]
Column experiment, Contamination, Blast furnace slag, Soil amendment, Polonite (R), blast-furnace slag, phosphorus retention, heavy-metals, sorption, ions, zinc, fertilizer, sorbents, wetlands, calcite
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18512DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.127ISI: 000266947000021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67349231917OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18512DiVA: diva2:336559
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Chemical reactions transfer contaminants from the aqueous to the solid phase. Phosphorus is removed from domestic wastewater by sorption to filter materials, which can then be recycled to agriculture as fertilisers and soil amendments. This thesis presents long-term column and field-scale studies of nine filter materials, particularly the novel product Polonite®. Phosphorus, nitro-gen and metals were removed by the mineral-based materials to varying degrees. Polonite and Nordkalk Filtra P demonstrated the largest phosphorus removal capacity, maintaining a PO4-P removal efficiency of >95%. Analysis of filter bed layers in columns with downward wastewater flow, showed that phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content was vertically distributed, with de-creasing values from surface to base layer. Polonite and Filtra P accumulated 1.9-19 g P kg-1. Nitrogen in wastewater was scarcely removed by the alkaline filter materials, but transformation from NH4-N to NO3-N was >90%. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) revealed that after wastewater treatment, slags and Polonite could increase plant production. Batch experi-ments and ATR-FTIR investigations indicated that amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the materials, so some of the accumulated PO4-P was readily available to plants. Low heavy metal contents occurred in the materials, showing that they can be applied as soil amend-ments in agriculture without contamination risks. A full-scale treatment system using Polonite as filter material showed an average PO4-P removal efficiency of 89% for a 92-week period, indicat-ing the robustness of the filter bed technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1043
Keyword
alkaline materials, heavy metals, mechanisms, nutrient removal, sorption, speciation modelling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4811 (URN)978-91-7415-024-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-16, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved

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Gustafsson, Jon Petter

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