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High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4394-0591
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2745-6289
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2009 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 13, 11057-11065 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Computed tomography based on high-resolution soft x-ray microscopy utilizes the natural contrast for biological specimens provided by the water window (lambda = 2.4 - 4.4 nm) and the high resolving power of zone plate objectives. It is capable of revealing the 3D structure of biological specimens at sub-visible-microscopic resolution. To date, the technique has only been available at synchrotron-based microscopes, which limits the researchers access. In the present paper we demonstrate high-resolution soft x-ray tomography with a laboratory zone-plate-based soft x-ray microscope. The specimen, a diatom mounted on a glass capillary, was reconstructed from a tilt series of 53 images covering 180 using a filtered back projection algorithm. The resolution of the tomogram was estimated to a half period of 140 nm using a differential-phase-residual method. Cryo-fixation, increased source brightness and extended-depth-of-focus objectives are important for pushing the resolution of compact systems for biological samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 17, no 13, 11057-11065 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18584ISI: 000267761100066Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67649271251OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18584DiVA: diva2:336631
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phase-Contrast and High-Resolution Optics for X-Ray Microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase-Contrast and High-Resolution Optics for X-Ray Microscopy
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

X-ray microscopy is a well-established technique for nanoscale imaging. Zone plates are used as microscope objectives and provide high resolution, approaching 10 nm, currently limited by fabrication issues. This Thesis presents zone plate optics that achieve either high resolution or phase contrast in x-ray microscopy. The high-resolution optics use high orders of the zone plate, which alleviates the demands on fabrication, and the phase-contrast optics are single-element diffractive optical elements that produce contrast by Zernike or differential-interference contrast methods. The advantage of phase contrast in x-ray microscopy is shorter exposure times, and is crucial in the hard x-ray regime. Microscopy in the absorption‑contrast region of the water-window (2.34 - 4.37 nm) also benefits from these optics. The development of the optics for a laboratory soft x-ray microscope spans from theoretical and numerical analysis of coherence and stray light to experimental implementation and testing. The laboratory microscope uses laser-produced plasma-sources in the water-window and is unique in its design and performance. It will be shown that the laboratory microscope in its current form is a user-oriented and stable instrument, and has been used in a number of applications. The implementation of a cryogenic sample stage for tomographic imaging of biological samples in their natural environment has enabled applications in biology, and 3D x-ray microscopy of cells was performed for the first time with a laboratory instrument.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. x, 61 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 72
Keyword
Microscopy, X-ray optics, X-ray microscopy, Soft X-ray physics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26781 (URN)978-91-7415-834-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-17, FD5, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 15:42 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101130Available from: 2010-11-30 Created: 2010-11-26 Last updated: 2010-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Soft x-ray microscopy in the water-window (λ = 2.28 nm – 4.36 nm) is based on zone-plate optics and allows high-resolution imaging of, e.g., cells and soils in their natural or near-natural environment. Three-dimensional imaging is provided via tomographic techniques, soft x-ray cryo tomography. However, soft x-ray microscopes with such capabilities have been based on large-scale synchrotron x‑ray facilities, thereby limiting their accessibility for a wider scientific community.

This Thesis describes the development of the Stockholm laboratory soft x-ray microscope to three-dimensional cryo tomography and to new optics-based contrast mechanisms. The microscope relies on a methanol or nitrogen liquid-jet laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer or zone-plate condenser optics, in-house fabricated zone-plate objectives, and allows operation at two wavelengths in the water-window, λ = 2.48 nm and λ = 2.48 nm. With the implementation of a new state-of-the-art normal-incidence multilayer condenser for operation at λ = 2.48 nm and a tiltable cryogenic sample stage the microscope now allows imaging of dry, wet or cryo-fixed samples. This arrangement was used for the first demonstration of laboratory soft x-ray cryo microscopy and tomography. The performance of the microscope has been demonstrated in a number of experiments described in this Thesis, including, tomographic imaging with a resolution of 140 nm, cryo microscopy and tomography of various cells and parasites, and for studies of aqueous soils and clays. The Thesis also describes the development and implementation of single-element differential-interference and Zernike phase-contrast zone-plate objectives. The enhanced contrast provided by these optics reduce exposure times or lowers the dose in samples and are of major importance for harder x-ray microscopy. The implementation of a high-resolution 50 nm compound zone-plate objective for sub-25-nm resolution imaging is also described. All experiments are supported by extensive numerical modelling for improved understanding of partially coherent image formation and stray light in soft x-ray microscopes. The models are useful tools for studying effects of zone plate optics or optical design of the microscope on image formation and quantitative accuracy in soft x-ray tomography.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 76 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2011:03
Keyword
Microscopy, X-ray optics, Diffractive optics, Zone plates, X-ray microscopy, Soft X-ray physics, Tomography
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29950 (URN)978-91-7415-874-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-02-25, FB42, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110221Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2011-02-21Bibliographically approved

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Vogt, UlrichHolmberg, AndersHertz, Hans M.

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