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A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5535-6368
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, 1101-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 170, no 2-3, 1101-1109 p.
Keyword [en]
Ammunition, Disposal, Life cycle assessment, Open detonation, Static, kiln, Recycling, disposing explosive waste, technologies
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18812DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.092ISI: 000270310500078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18812DiVA: diva2:336859
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many decision-making situations today affect the safety of individuals and the environment,for instance hazardous waste management. In practice, many of these decisions are madewithout an overall view and with the focus on either the environment or safety. Now and then the areas of regulation are in conflict, i.e. the best alternative according to environmental considerations is not always the safest way and vice versa.A tool for taking an overall view within the areas of safety and environment would simplify matters and provide authorities and industry with a better basis for their work. This thesis forms part of a project which aims to develop a framework tool giving this overall view and supporting decision-making in which the issues (areas) of environment, safety, ethics and costs are all integrated. By developing a framework tool, different areas of interest could be taken into consideration more easily when a decision is to be made and could also help develop legislation and policy locally (at an industry or company), nationally and internationally. The project also aims to provide knowledge about different destruction/decommission methods, their good and bad points and their consequences, in order to provide different actors with a better basis for decision-making. This thesis focuses on development of the framework. The scope of the studies was restricted to environment, ethics and personnel safety due to the extent of the work and time limitations. In the next part of the project, the areas of costs and evaluation will be studied and a first draft of the framework tool will be presented. In order to develop the framework tool, two case studies were carried out here: an environmental analysis involving a life cycle assessment and an ethical analysis. With the help of these analyses, three different methods of destruction of ammunition were compared: Open detonation, modelled both with and without recovery and recycling of metals; incineration in a static kiln with air pollution control combined with recycling of metals, modelled with two different levels of air emissions; and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and recycling of metals, giving a total of five options. Every method of destruction of energetic material, i.e. explosive waste or ammunition, results in environmental impacts in both the short and long term. These environmental impacts have direct or indirect impacts on safety, quality of life, the economy, etc., now and in the future, locally and globally. Life cycle assessment revealed two factors of importance for reducing the environmental impacts: Recycling the metals and air pollution control. As a consequence of controlling these potential negative environmental impacts, safety problems might also be controlled. Ethical analysis revealed that future generations and people in foreign countries will be affected by the destruction of ammunition. When choosing a method for destruction of ammunition, this group (the general public) should thus be given special attention.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 41 p.
Series
Trita-SOM , ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2010:16
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27345 (URN)978-91-7415-809-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-12-15, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101210Available from: 2010-12-10 Created: 2010-12-10 Last updated: 2011-02-04Bibliographically approved

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