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WikiPharma - A freely available, easily accessible, interactive and comprehensive database for environmental effect data for pharmaceuticals
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
2009 (English)In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 55, no 3, 367-371 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A significant number of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) have been identified in the environment and in surface waters. Data on the environmental hazards associated with these substances are emerging but are still scarce. We have compiled publicly available ecotoxicity data for APIs into a database called WikiPharma. The use of the database is free of charge. It can be accessed and updated continuously as a "wiki". The aim of WikiPharma is to provide an easily accessible, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of effects caused by pharmaceuticals on non-target organisms. The database currently contains basic information, i.e. substance name, ATC code(s) and pharmaceutical group(s), for 831 APIs representing 35 different drug classes. Effect data have been identified and included for 116 of these substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 156 different sources. The development of a comprehensive database on ecological hazard of APIs can facilitate identification of data gaps and promote environmental risk assessment of these substances. The database is available at

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 55, no 3, 367-371 p.
Keyword [en]
Pharmaceuticals, Ecotoxicity, Database, Environmental effects, MistraPharma, WikiPharma, chemicals
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18961DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.08.009ISI: 000271771100015ScopusID: 2-s2.0-70350394844OAI: diva2:337008
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2012-11-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. From Science to Policy: Improving environmental risk assessment andmanagement of chemicals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Science to Policy: Improving environmental risk assessment andmanagement of chemicals
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A complex process like risk assessment and the subsequent risk management decision makingshould be regularly evaluated, in order to assess the need to improve its workings. In this thesisthree related matters are addressed: evaluation of environmental risk management strategies,evaluation of environmental risk assessments, and how ecotoxicity data from the open scientificliterature can be used in a systematic way in regulatory risk assessments. It has resulted in thefollowing: a publically available database with ecotoxicity data for pharmaceuticals (Paper I); anevaluation and review of the Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System forpharmaceuticals (Papers II and III); a comparison of current reliability evaluation methods and areliability evaluation of ecotoxicity data (Paper IV); and an improved reliability and relevancereporting and evaluation scheme (Paper V).There are three overall conclusions from this thesis:(1) Ecotoxicity data from the open scientific literature is not used to the extent it could be inregulatory risk assessment of chemicals. Major reasons for this are that regulators prefer standarddata and that research studies in the open scientific literature can be reported in a way that affectstheir reliability and the user-friendliness. To enable the use of available data more efficiently actionsmust be taken by researchers, editors, and regulators. A more structured reliability and relevanceevaluation is needed to reach the goal of transparent, robust and predictable risk assessments.(2) A risk assessment is the result of the selected data and the selected methods used in theprocess. Therefore a transparent procedure, with clear justifications of choices made, is necessaryto enable external review. The risk assessments conducted within the Swedish EnvironmentalClassification and Information System for pharmaceuticals vary in their transparency and choice ofmethod. This could come to affect the credibility of the system since risk assessments are notalways consistent and guidelines are not always followed.(3) The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for pharmaceuticalscontribute, in its current form, to data availability and transparency but not to risk reduction. Thesystem has contributed to the general discussion about pharmaceuticals’ effect on the environmentand made data publicly available. However, to be an effective risk reduction tool this is not sufficient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 43 p.
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X ; 8
environmental risk assessment, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, transparency, predictability, accuracy, consistency, voluntary initiatives, ecotoxicity data, reliability evaluation, relevance evaluation, non-standard test data, CSR, risk management.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105225 (URN)978-91-7501-507-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-07, E3, Osquars Backe 14, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
MistraPharmaFormas - Evaluation of the Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceutcals.
FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research

QC 20121119

Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2012-11-19Bibliographically approved

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