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The adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) of starch on mechanical pulps for improved mechanical paper properties
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2009 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 24, no 4, 459-468 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, the long fibre and middle fibre fraction of a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was treated with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of cationic and anionic starch and sheets were made from both the treated and untreated fractions. In separate experiments, different amounts of untreated fines were added to the PEM-treated fraction before sheets were prepared, and the results were also compared with PEM treatment of the entire pulp containing 17% fines before sheet preparation. The PEMs were made of two different combinations of starch, two cationic potato starches with DS values of 0.06 and 0.09, both in combination with an anionic potato starch with a DS of 0.04, at 0.010 M NaCl and pH 6.3. Sheets were formed using the Rapid Kothen sheet former and the resulting mechanical and optical sheet properties were evaluated. Four-layer PEM treatment of the long fibre and middle fraction resulted in significant improvements in in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties. However, a subsequent fines addition reduced the effect of the PEMs, and this is explained by a blocking of the necessary PEM interaction with the treated TMP long fibre and middle fraction by the subsequently added fines. PEM treatment of the entire pulp increased the amount of starch needed for PEM treatment, but improved the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties compared with those of sheets prepared from a PEM-treated long fibre and middle fraction with a subsequent addition of fine material. The increase in the tensile index for sheets made from a PEM-treated long fibre and the middle fraction without a subsequent fines addition, however, was much larger.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 24, no 4, 459-468 p.
Keyword [en]
Polyelectrolyte multilayer, Mechanical pulp, Starch, Adsorption, Mechanical properties, enhance strength properties, cationic starch, wood fibers, part i
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19119DOI: 10.3183/NPPRJ-2009-24-04-p459-468ISI: 000273724200013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-76349120582OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-19119DiVA: diva2:337166
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-02-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Polyelectrolyte multilayers of cationic and anionic starch and their use for improving the strength of papers made from mechanical pulps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyelectrolyte multilayers of cationic and anionic starch and their use for improving the strength of papers made from mechanical pulps
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Graphic paper is experiencing severe competition from other materials and, most of all, from other media. This means there is a great need to improve paper quality while reducing raw material and production costs. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) treatment (i.e., consecutively adding cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes to the charged surface of wood fibres and fines, to form layers of these polyelectrolytes on the fibres/fines) has in recent years been found to offer great potential both to introduce new properties and to improve the mechanical properties of papers made of the treated fibres.

The main objective of this thesis was to develop a strategy for the PEM treatment of cationic and anionic starch to improve the mechanical properties of paper made of thermomechanical pulp (TMP), since PEM treatment of fibres has displayed great potential to improve the mechanical properties of sheets made of chemical pulp. Mechanical pulp, however, has a large fine material content. Since the fine material is highly charged, polyelectrolyte consumption would be unacceptably high if the entire pulp were PEM treated, so we applied PEM treatment only to a fibre fraction of the pulps in most trials in the present work. The polyelectrolytes used for PEMs have so far mostly been well-defined, expensive ones unsuitable for use in standard paper grades; to develop a more economically realistic alternative, we used cationic and anionic starches.

PEM formation on SiO2 surfaces from three differently charged cationic and anionic starches was first evaluated at three different salt levels using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR). The starch combinations displaying the highest potential for stable PEM formation at higher salt concentrations were then evaluated on an entire TMP pulp, as well as on a fraction of the pulp to reduce the amount of starch needed for PEM formation.

The results indicate that it is possible to form PEMs from cationic and anionic starch on a SiO2 surface. The charge density, salt concentration, and combination of starches all influenced PEM formation. PEM formation on mechanical fibres produced large improvements in the mechanical properties of the sheets made of the treated fibres, and the tensile index, stretch-at-break, Z-strength, and Scott bond values all increased. Fractionating the pulp and PEM treating only a fraction of the pulp, the long fibre and middle fraction, produced large decreases in the amount of starch needed and large improvements in the mechanical properties of the sheets when no fine material was subsequently added. As untreated fine material was subsequently added, the improvement in mechanical properties decreased. PEM formation produced almost no reduction in formation and only a slight increase in sheet density.

Abstract [sv]

Grafiskt papper är under hård konkurrens från andra material och, framför allt, andra media.  På grund av detta finns det ett stort behov av att förbättra papperskvalitén samtidigt som råmaterial- och produktionskostnader sänks. Polyelektrolyt-multiskikt (multiskikt) på massa (dvs. växelvis adsorption av katjoniska och anjoniska polyelektrolyter till träfibrer och finmaterial) har på senare år visat sig ha bra potential både för att ge nya egenskaper och för att förbättra de mekaniska egenskaperna hos papper gjorda av behandlad fiber.

Huvudsyftet med denna avhandling var att utveckla en strategi för multiskiktsbehandling med katjonisk och anjonisk stärkelse för att förbättra de mekaniska egenskaperna hos papper gjort av behandlad termomekanisk massa (TMP). Multiskiktsbehandling av fiber har visat stor potential för att ge förbättrade mekaniska egenskaper till ark gjorda av behandlad kemisk massa. Mekanisk massa innehåller dock en stor andel högladdat finmaterial som kan öka mängden polyelektrolyt som krävs för multiskiktsbehandling, därför multiskiktsbehandlas bara en fraktion av massan i de flesta experiment i detta arbete. De polyelektrolyter som använts för multiskikt har hittills mest varit väldefinierade och dyra, och därmed opassande för användning i vanliga papperskvalitéer. För att utveckla ett mer realistiskt alternativ så användes katjonisk och anjonisk stärkelse i detta arbete.

Multiskiktsuppbyggnad på SiO2-ytor av tre katjoniska och tre anjoniska stärkelser med olika laddningsdensitet utvärderades först vid tre olika saltnivåer genom att använda kvartskristal‑mikrogravimetri (QCM-D) och reflektometri (SPAR). Stärkelsekombinationerna som uppvisade störst potential för en stabil multiskiktsuppbyggnad på högre saltkoncentrationer blev sedan utvärderade på en hel TMP-massa, men även på en fraktion av massan för att minska mängden stärkelse som krävdes för multiskiktsuppbyggnad.

Resultaten visar på att det är möjligt att bygga upp multiskikt av katjonisk och anjonisk stärkelse på en SiO2-yta. Laddningsdensiteten, saltkoncentrationen och kombinationen av stärkelser var faktorer som påverkade multiskiktsuppbyggnaden. Multiskiktsuppbyggnad på mekaniska fibrer gav stora förbättringar av de mekaniska egenskaperna hos ark gjorda av behandlad fiber, och dragindex, töjning, Z-styrka och Scott bond-värde ökade. Fraktionering av massan och multiskiktsbehandling av endast en del av massan, långfiber- och mellanfraktion, innebar att mycket mindre stärkelse behövdes och gav stora förbättringar av de mekaniska egenskaperna hos arken om inget obehandlat finmaterial tillsattes efteråt. Då obehandlat finmaterial tillsattes så blev förbättringarna hos de mekaniska egenskaperna mindre. Multiskitsuppbyggnad gav nästan ingen reduktion av formationen och endast en liten ökning i arkdensitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. 57 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:16
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10537 (URN)978-91-7415-294-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-05-26, STFI-salen, STFI-Packforsk, KTH, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-25 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2010-10-27Bibliographically approved

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