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Chromatographic pattern in recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS): Occurrence of low molecular weight compounds during the life cycle
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3572-7798
Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
2010 (English)In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 95, no 2, 172-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of the chromatographic pattern of virgin, reprocessed, thermo-oxidised, and recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) proves to be a suitable and sensitive tool to assess the degree of degradation of HIPS during its first life and subsequent recycling. Different low molecular weight compounds, such as residues of polymerisation, degradation products, and additives have been identified and relatively quantified in HIPS, using microwave-assisted extraction and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The release of residues of polymerisation has been proven to occur during reprocessing, thermo-oxidation, and in recycled samples, which may show the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds during the life cycle of HIPS. A wide range of oxidised degradation products are formed during reprocessing and thermo-oxidation; these products can be identified as oxidised fragments of polystyrene (PS), oxidised fragments from polybutadiene (PB) phase, and oxidised fragments from the grafting points between the PS and PB phase. Real recycled HIPS samples may also contain contaminations and fragments from additives included in their original formulations; the presence of brominated fragments from flame retardants in electronic waste is here observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 95, no 2, 172-186 p.
Keyword [en]
Chromatographic pattern, High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), Degradation, Thermo-oxidation, Processing, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile organic-compounds, residual styrene monomer, gas-chromatography, long wavelengths, thermooxidative degradation, thermal polymerization, oxidative-degradation, expanded polystyrene, mass spectrometry, photo-oxidation
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19230DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.11.033ISI: 000274711100010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-73449117465OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-19230DiVA: diva2:337277
Note
QC 20100525. Tidigare titel: Chromatographic pattern for mimicking the occurrence of volatiles and low molecular weight compounds in high-impact polystyrene during multiple processing and thermo-oxidationAvailable from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 Polymeric waste materials should be considered resources for the manufacture of new products through recycling processes, with a similar status as virgin fossil-based plastics and biopolymers from renewable resources. Several efforts can be done to achieve this qualitative quantum leap and introduce recycled products in the market with competitive performance. Detailed scientific knowledge about the degradation processes to which polymeric materials are subjected under their life cycle is important when discussing their further waste recovery possibilities and the performance of recycled plastic. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the quality assessment of recycled plastics is fundamental to guarantee their performance in new applications. Three key quality properties have been previously defined for this quality analysis: degree of mixing (composition), degree of degradation, and presence of low molecular weight compounds (degradation products, contaminants, additives).A dual experimental approach employing multiple processing and thermooxidation is proposed to model the life cycle of recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) used in packaging applications, and in electrical and electronic equipment (E&E). Both reprocessing and thermo-oxidative degradation are responsible for coexistent physical and chemical effects (chain scission, crosslinking, apparition of oxidative moieties, polymeric chain rearrangements, and probably physical ageing) on the microstructure and morphology of polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene (PS) phases; these effects ultimately influence the long-term stability, and the rheological and mechanical behaviour of HIPS. The PB phase has proved to be the initiation point of HIPS degradation throughout the life cycle. Thermo-oxidation seems to have more severe effects on HIPS properties; therefore, it can be concluded that previous service life may be the part of the life cycle with the greatest influence on the recycling possibilities and performance of HIPS recyclates in second-market applications.Different strategies are presented for the quality analysis of recycled styrenic polymers from packaging waste and electrical and electronic equipment. The results from the life cycle degradation simulation were compared with those obtained from real samples from a large-scale mechanical recycling plant. The presence and emission of low molecular weight compounds from recycled HIPS from packaging waste has been critically discussed using solvent and headspace extraction procedures. Special attention has been devoted to the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled HIPS from electrical and electronic equipment using advanced extraction and chromatographic techniques, due to the legislative and environmental implications of these additives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 57 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:63
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4895 (URN)978-91-7415-112-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-17 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved

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