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Mechanical performance tailoring of tough ultra-high porosity foams prepared from cellulose I nanofiber suspensions
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9832-027X
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5818-2378
2010 (English)In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, Vol. 6, no 8, 1824-1832 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-density structures of mechanical function in plants, arthropods and other organisms, are often based on high- strength cellulose or chitin nanofibers and show an interesting combination of flexibility and toughness. Here, a series of plant-inspired tough and mechanically very robust cellular biopolymer foams with porosities as high as 99.5% (porosity range 93.1-99.5%) were therefore prepared by solvent-free freeze-drying from cellulose I wood nanofiber water suspensions. A wide range of mechanical properties was obtained by controlling density and nanofiber interaction in the foams, and density property relationships were modeled and compared with those for inorganic aerogels. Inspired by cellulose-xyloglucan (XG) interaction in plant cell walls, XG was added during preparation of the toughest foams. For the cellulose-XG nanocomposite foams in particular, the mechanical properties at comparable densities were superior to those reported in the literature for clay aerogel/cellulose whisker nanocomposites, epoxy/clay aerogels, polymer/clay/nanotube aerogels, and polymer/silica aerogels. The foam structure was characterized by high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy and the specific surface area was measured by nitrogen physisorption. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and uniaxial compression tests were performed. The foam was thermally stable up to 275 degrees C where cellulose started to degrade.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 6, no 8, 1824-1832 p.
Keyword [en]
Density structures, Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Foam structure, High resolution, High-strength, In-plants, Mechanical functions, Mechanical performance, Nanocomposite foams, Solvent free, Thermally stable, Ultra-high, Uniaxial compression tests, Water suspensions, Xyloglucans, Aerogels, Cellulose, Ceramic materials, Compression testing, Density (specific gravity), Dynamic mechanical analysis, Foams, High resolution electron microscopy, Nanocomposites, Nanofibers, Physisorption, Plant cell culture, Porosity, Scanning electron microscopy, Thermoanalysis
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19383DOI: 10.1039/b927505cISI: 000276469300027Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77950854066OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-19383DiVA: diva2:337430
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-04-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanofiber networks, aerogels and biocomposites based on nanofibrillated cellulose from wood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofiber networks, aerogels and biocomposites based on nanofibrillated cellulose from wood
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from wood is an interesting material constituent of high strength and high aspect ratio, which easily forms networks through interfibril secondary bonding including hydrogen bonds. This has been exploited in preparation of new materials, which extend the range of properties for existing cellulosic materials. The objective is to explore processing-structure and structure-property relationships in NFC materials.

Dense networks of NFC, referred to as “nanopaper” having a random-in-the-plane orientation of the fibrils have been successfully prepared by a papermaking-like process involving vacuum filtration and water evaporation using laboratory papermaking equipment. Large, flat and transparent nanopaper sheets have thus been prepared in a relatively short time. Using the same preparation route, NFC was used to reinforce pulped wood fibers in dense network structures. NFC networks formed in the pore space of the wood fiber network give an interesting hierarchical structure of reduced porosity. These NFC/wood fiber biocomposites have greater strength, greater stiffness and greater strain-to-failure than reference networks of wood fibers only. In particular, the work to fracture (area under the stress-strain curve) is doubled with an NFC content of only 2%.

The papermaking preparation route was extended to prepare nanocomposites of high NFC content with a cellulose derivative matrix (hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC) strongly associated to the NFC. Little HEC was lost during filtration. The NFC/HEC composites have high work to fracture, higher than that of any reported cellulose composite. This is related to NFC network characteristics, and HEC properties and its nanoscale distribution and association with NFC.

Higher porosity NFC nanopaper networks of high specific surface area were prepared by new routes including supercritical drying, tert-butanol freeze-drying and CO2 evaporation. Light-weight porous nanopaper materials resulted with mechanical properties similar to thermoplastics but with a much lower density and a specific surface area of up to 480 m2/g.

Freeze-drying of hydrocolloidal NFC dispersions was used to prepare ultra-high porosity foam structures. The NFC foams have a cellular foam structure of mixed open/closed cells and “nanopaper” cell wall. Control of density and mechanical properties was possible by variation of NFC concentration in the dispersion. A cellulose I foam of the highest porosity ever reported (99.5%) was prepared. The NFC foams have high ductility and toughness and may be of interest for applications involving mechanical energy absorption. Freeze-drying of NFC suspended in tert-butanol gave highly porous NFC network aerogels with a large surface area. The mechanical behavior was significantly different from NFC foams of similar density due to differences in deformation mechanisms for NFC nanofiber networks.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 74 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:024
Keyword
Nanofibrillated cellulose, nanopaper, nanofiber, biocomposites, aerogel, foam
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32079 (URN)978-91-7415-931-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-27, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110406Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-05 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved

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Zhou, QiBerglund, Lars A.

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