Solvation of carbanions in organic solvents: A test of the polarizable continuum model
2000 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1089-5647, Vol. 104, no 42, 9887-9893 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The solvation of carbanions in the solvents N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been analyzed on the basis of experimental and theoretical data. Experimental solvation energies are obtained from present and previously reported electrochemical measurements of reduction potentials of the corresponding radicals. Theoretical solvation energies are obtained from quantum chemical calculations using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). It is found that the solvation energy is relatively independent of molecular size and structure for the saturated carbanions. This indicates that the negative charge is strongly localized to the anionic carbon. The conjugated carbanions have considerably lower absolute solvation energies (\ DeltaG degrees (sol)\) than the saturated carbanions. This is a consequence of the strong delocalization of the negative charge in the former group. The propargyl anion is also found to have a surprisingly low absolute solvation energy. However, high-level quantum chemical calculations show that the electronic structure has large contributions from two different resonance structures, CH=CCH2- and -CH=C=CH2, which results in a significant charge delocalization. There is good agreement between calculated and experimental solvation energies for both the conjugated and nonconjugated primary anions. However, the PCM method consistently underestimates the absolute solvation energies of the secondary and tertiary carbanions. This is attributed to an insufficient treatment of first-layer solvation effects in the method. According to the experimental measurements, the absolute solvation energies are on average 2-3 kcal mol(-1) lower in THF than in DMF. The theoretical data indicate a considerably larger solvent effect, 7-10 kcal mol(-1). The discrepancy between theory and experiment may partly be attributed to the use of a supporting electrolyte in the measurements, but the main cause seems to be that the short-range interaction tendencies of the solvent cannot be Fully characterized by its dielectric constant.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 104, no 42, 9887-9893 p.
free-energies, gas-phase, reduction potentials, aqueous-solution, ab-initio, radicals, photoinjection, inversion, anions, ion
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-20139ISI: 000165077600018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-20139DiVA: diva2:338832
QC 201005252010-08-102010-08-10Bibliographically approved