Runoff rates, chemical speciation and bioavailability of copper released from naturally patinated copper
2002 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 120, no 3, 691-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The release of copper, induced by atmospheric corrosion, from naturally patinated copper of varying age (0 and 30 years) has been investigated together with its potential ecotoxic effect. Results were generated in an interdisciplinary research effort in which corrosion science and ecotoxicology aspects were combined. The aim of the investigation was to elucidate the situation when copper-containing rainwater leaves a roof in terms of runoff rate, chemical speciation, bioavailability and ecotoxicity effects. Data have been collected during a three-year field exposure conducted in the urban environment of Stockholm, Sweden. The potential environmental effects have been evaluated using a combination of a copper specific biosensor test with the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus and the conventional 72-h growth inhibition test with the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. The results show annual runoff rates between 1.0 and 1.5 g/m(2) year for naturally patinated copper of varying age. The runoff rate increased slightly with patina age, which mainly is attributed to the enhanced first flush effect observed on thicker patina layers. The total copper concentration in investigated runoff samplings ranged from 0.9 to 9.7 mg/l. Both computer modeling and experimental studies revealed that the majority (60-100%) of released copper was present as the free hydrated cupric ion, Cu(H2O)(6)(2+), the most bioavailable copper species. However, other copper species in the runoff water, such as, e.g. Cu(OH)(+) and CU2(OH)(2)(2+), were also bioavailable. The copper-containing runoff water, sampled directly after release from the roof, caused significant reduction in growth rate of the green alga. It should be emphasized that the results describe the runoff situation immediately after release from the copper roof and not the real environmental ecotoxicity. Therefore the data should only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of copper runoff from building applications. Future risk assessments should also consider dilution effects of copper, changes in its chemical speciation and bioavailability during environmental entry, and type and sensitivity of the receiving ecosystem.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 120, no 3, 691-700 p.
copper, atmospheric corrosion, runoff rates, chemical speciation, bioavailability, ecotoxicity, algal test, copper-specific biosensor, toxicity, capricornutum, environment, biosensors, roofs, zinc, cu2+
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-22020ISI: 000179013200021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-22020DiVA: diva2:340718
QC 201005252010-08-102010-08-10Bibliographically approved