The use of different concentrations of betaine as a reducing irritation agent in soaps monitored visually and non-invasively
2003 (English)In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 9, no 1, 43-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background/aims: Products containing detergents can damage the skin and give rise to irritant contact dermatitis. Therefore, attempts have been made to find less irritating detergents as well as substances decreasing undesired side-effects of detergents, and a novel approach is offered by betaine. The aim of the study has been to determine the irritating properties of some liquid soaps for personal hygiene and to map the effect of different concentrations of betaine using electrical impedance, trans -epidermal water loss and visual inspection. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were patch tested with different commercial soaps with and without betaine and sodium lauryl sulphate on both volar forearms for 24 h. A site with distilled water and an unoccluded area were used as references. Responses of the skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection and by measuring trans-epidermal water loss and electrical impedance before application and 24 h after removal of the chambers. Results/conclusions: Significant skin reactions were found for all soaps tested but the soaps containing betaine were the least irritating. However, the skin irritation did not decrease with increasing concentrations of betaine in the tested range. On the whole the differences between the products were not large. The non-invasive methods used were more sensitive than visual assessment for evaluation of invisible or barely visible skin responses.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 9, no 1, 43-49 p.
electrical impedance, trans-epidermal water loss, betaine, SLS, liquid, soaps, sodium lauryl sulfate, of-contact-dermatitis, electrical-impedance, water-loss, standardization-group, skin irritation, patch test, exposure, surfactants, information
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-22197ISI: 000180528100007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-22197DiVA: diva2:340895
QC 201005252010-08-102010-08-10Bibliographically approved