Morphological instability of NiSi1-uGeu on single-crystal and polycrystalline Si1-xGex
2004 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 4, 1919-1928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The morphological stability of NiSi1-uGeu ternary alloy films formed by reacting Ni with single-crystal (sc) and polycrystalline (poly) Si1-xGeu is studied (u can be different from x). The agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu films on Si0.7Ge0.3 occurs at 550degreesC after rapid thermal processing for 30 s, independently of the crystallinity of the Si1-xGeu. This behavior distinctly different from NiSi: NiSi films on poly-Si display a poorer morphological stability and degrade at lower temperatures than NiSi on sc-Si. On strained Si1-xGex, the presence of Ge simultaneously gives rise to two effects of different origin: mechanical and thermodynamic. The main driving forces behind the agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu on sc-Si1-xGex are found to be the stored strain energy in the Si1-xGex and the larger (absolute) free energy of formation of NiSi compared to NiGe. The latter constitutes the principal driving force behind the agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu on poly-Si1-xGex and is not affected by the degree of crystallinity of Si1-xGex. The total free-energy change also includes terms corresponding to the entropy of mixing of Si and Ge in both Si1-xGex and NiSi1-uGeu. Calculations show that the strain energy and the total free-energy change can be 5-7 times (with 30 at.% Ge) the surface/interface and grain-boundary energies in a NiSi film or the grain-boundary energy in an underlying poly-Si. These latter energies are responsible for the agglomeration of NiSi on sc- and poly-Si. The agglomeration takes place primarily via the interdiffusion of Si and Ge between Si1-xGex and NiSi1-uGeu. A structure likely to improve the stability of NiSi1-uGeu/Si1-xGex is discussed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 96, no 4, 1919-1928 p.
thin-films, phase-stability, sixge1-x films, strain-energy, nickel, sige, nisi, germanosilicide, metallization, interlayer
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-23623DOI: 10.1063/1.1766088ISI: 000223055100021ScopusID: 2-s2.0-4344645532OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-23623DiVA: diva2:342322
QC 20100525 QC 201109232010-08-102010-08-102011-09-23Bibliographically approved