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Visualisation and Generalisation of 3D City Models
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

3D city models have been widely used in different applications such as urban planning, traffic control, disaster management etc. Effective visualisation of 3D city models in various scales is one of the pivotal techniques to implement these applications. In this thesis, a framework is proposed to visualise the 3D city models both online and offline using City Geography Makeup Language (CityGML) and Extensible 3D (X3D) to represent and present the models. Then, generalisation methods are studied and tailored to create 3D city scenes in multi-scale dynamically. Finally, the quality of generalised 3D city models is evaluated by measuring the visual similarity from the original models.

 

In the proposed visualisation framework, 3D city models are stored in CityGML format which supports both geometric and semantic information. These CityGML files are parsed to create 3D scenes and be visualised with existing 3D standard. Because the input and output in the framework are all standardised, it is possible to integrate city models from different sources and visualise them through the different viewers.

 

Considering the complexity of the city objects, generalisation methods are studied to simplify the city models and increase the visualisation efficiency. In this thesis, the aggregation and typification methods are improved to simplify the 3D city models.

 

Multiple representation data structures are required to store the generalisation information for dynamic visualisation. One of these is the CityTree, a novel structure to represent building group, which is tested for building aggregation. Meanwhile, Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) is employed to detect the linear building group structures in the city models and they are typified with different strategies. According to the experiments results, by using the CityTree, the generalised 3D city model creation time is reduced by more than 50%.

 

Different generalisation strategies lead to different outcomes. It is important to evaluate the quality of the generalised models. In this thesis a new evaluation method is proposed: visual features of the 3D city models are represented by Attributed Relation Graph (ARG) and their similarity distances are calculated with Nested Earth Mover’s Distance (NEMD) algorithm. The calculation results and user survey show that the ARG and NEMD methods can reflect the visual similarity between generalised city models and the original ones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , x, 60 p.
Series
Trita-SOM , ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2010:8
Keyword [en]
3D city models, Visualisation, CityGML, X3D, Generalisation, Aggregation, Typification, Quality evaluation
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
SRA - E-Science (SeRC)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24345ISBN: 978-91-7415-715-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-24345DiVA: diva2:347004
Presentation
2010-09-10, Seminarierum 4055, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ViSuCity Project
Funder
Swedish e‐Science Research Center
Note
QC 20100923Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-02 Last updated: 2010-09-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Framework of Online 3D City Visualization using CityGML and X3D
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework of Online 3D City Visualization using CityGML and X3D
2009 (English)In: The 6th International Symposium on Digital Earth, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel framework based on CityGML and X3D is proposed to support visualization of 3D City Model through Internet. In the proposed framework, the CityGML files are first parsed to acquire the city model information. Citygml4j, an open source java API, is used for this parsing. Then, the X3D representation is generated based on the city model by the proposed algorithm which can dynamically create different 3D city models according to corresponding Levels of Detail (LOD). Finally, the 3D city scene in X3D format is displayed through Internet with java applet or other X3D viewers. The Java Applets are created using the Xj3D toolkit. The preliminary experiment shows that the framework can correctly and efficiently exhibit the3D city model via Internet.

Keyword
CityGML, X3D, 3D City Visualization
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24703 (URN)
Conference
The 6th International Symposium on Digital Earth, Beijing, China, September, 2009
Note

QC 20100923

Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-23 Last updated: 2016-05-09Bibliographically approved
2. A Multiple Representation Data Structure for Dynamic Visualisation of Generalised 3D City Models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multiple Representation Data Structure for Dynamic Visualisation of Generalised 3D City Models
2011 (English)In: ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing (Print), ISSN 0924-2716, E-ISSN 1872-8235, Vol. 66, no 2, 198-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel multiple representation data structure for dynamic visualisation of 3D city models, called CityTree, is proposed. To create a CityTree, the ground plans of the buildings are generated and simplified. Then, the buildings are divided into clusters by the road network and one CityTree is created for each cluster. The leaf nodes of the CityTree represent the original 3D objects of each building, and the intermediate nodes represent groups of close buildings. By utilizing CityTree, it is possible to have dynamic zoomfunctionality in real time. The CityTree methodology is implemented in aframework where the original city model is stored in CityGML and the CityTree is stored as X3D scenes. A case study confirms the applicability of the CityTree for dynamic visualisation of 3D city models.

National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24707 (URN)10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2010.08.001 (DOI)000288628000006 ()2-s2.0-79951727298 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110530Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. An automatic approach for the typification of façade structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An automatic approach for the typification of façade structures
(English)In: ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing (Print), ISSN 0924-2716, E-ISSN 1872-8235Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Typification is a well-established operator of map generalization. Although it is widely used in many existing research fields, less discussion has been devoted to the quality of typification. This paper presents a user survey for the evaluation of different typification results of façade structures under different constraints. The survey shows that preservation of the shape of the features is the most important constraint for a reasonable typification process, which has also been quantitatively verified by calculating the similarities between the typified façades and the original façade using attributed relational graph (ARG) and nested earth mover’s distance (NEMD) algorithms. Based on that, an algorithm is developed to generate perceivably reasonable representation from the original facade with decreasing map scale. The algorithm is implemented and tested on a number of façades. Experiments reveal that the typification can be automatically conducted and can create results which are well associated with the original façades.

National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24708 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120326Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. A Dynamic Typification Method of 3D City Models using Minimum Spanning Tree
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Dynamic Typification Method of 3D City Models using Minimum Spanning Tree
2010 (English)In: Proc. 6th international conference on Geographic Information Science, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel method based on MST for 3D City model typification is proposed. The 3D building models in higher LODs are converted into LOD1 with simplified ground plan and height. Minimum spanning tree (MST) of the ground plan centroid is generated and divided into sub-MSTs by road network. The building lists in each sub-MST with linear structure are selected, based on which typification model is created. According to the visualization evaluation and experiments, our method can reduce the building numbers while preserve the visual similarity well for selected city area.

Keyword
CityGML, X3D, Typification, Minimum Spanning Tree, Dynamic Visualization
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24709 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
6th international conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience2010), Zurich, Switzerland
Note

QC 20100923

Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-23 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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