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High efficiency nonuniformgrating coupler by utilizing the lag effect in the dry etching process
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7056-4379
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5967-2651
2010 (English)In: 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, 5465672- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Utilizing the lag effect in dry etching, a nonuniform silicon-on-insulator grating coupler is designed and fabricated. Over 80% (>-1dB) coupling efficiency is theoretically obtained and experimental coupling efficiency of 55% is achieved for TE polarization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. 5465672- p.
Keyword [en]
Nanophotonic Wave-Guides, Optical-Fiber
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24371ISI: 000287574100506Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77953917743ISBN: 978-1-55752-884-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-24371DiVA: diva2:349236
Conference
2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OFC/NFOEC 2010; San Diego, CA; United States; 21 March 2010 through 25 March 2010
Note

QC 20100906

Available from: 2010-09-06 Created: 2010-09-06 Last updated: 2014-08-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Study on electroabsorption modulators and grating couplers for optical interconnects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on electroabsorption modulators and grating couplers for optical interconnects
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Decades of efforts have pushed the replacement of electrical interconnects by optical links to the interconnects between computers, racks and circuit boards. It may be expected that optical solutions will further be used for inter-chip and intra-chip interconnects with potential benefits in bandwidth, capacity, delay, power consumption and crosstalk. Silicon integration is emerging to be the best candidate nowadays due to not only the dominant status of silicon in microelectronics but also the great advantages brought to the photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Regarding the recent breakthroughs concerning active devices on silicon substrate, the question left is no longer the feasibility of the optical interconnects based on silicon but the competitiveness of the silicon device compared with other alternatives.

This thesis focuses on the study of two key components for the optical interconnects, both especially designed and fabricated for silicon platform. One is a high speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM), realized by transferring an InP-based segmented design to the hybrid silicon evanescent platform. The purpose here is to increase the speed of the silicon PICs to over 50  Gb/s or more. The other one is a high performance grating coupler, with the purpose to improve the optical interface between the silicon PICs and the outside fiber-based communication system.

An general approach based on the transmission line analysis has been developed to evaluate the modulation response of an EAM with a lumped, traveling-wave, segmented or capacitively-loaded configuration. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize its configuration. This method has been applied to the design of the EAMs on hybrid silicon evanescent platform. Based on the comparison of various electrode design, segmented configuration is adopted for the target of a bandwidth over 40 GHz with as low as possible voltage and high extinction ratio.

In addition to the common periodic analysis, the grating coupler is analyzed by the antenna theory assisted with an improved volume-current method, where the directionality of a grating coupler can be obtained analytically. In order to improve the performance of the grating coupler, a direct way is to address its shortcoming by e.g. increasing the coupling efficiency. For this reason, a nonuniform grating coupler with apodized grooves has been developed with a coupling efficiency of 64%, nearly a double of a standard one. Another way is to add more functionalities to the grating coupler. To do this, a polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on a bidirectional grating coupler has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An extinction ratio of around -20 dB, as well as a maximum coupling efficiency of over 50% for both polarizations, is achieved by such a PBS with a Bragg reflector underneath.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. xii, 80 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610
Keyword
Photonic integrated circuit, optical interconnect, transmission line, traveling-wave, electro-absorption modulator, hybrid silicon evanescent platform, grating coupler, vertical coupling scheme, optical antenna, lag effect, polarization beam splitter
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24178 (URN)
Public defence
2010-09-27, sal 438, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, Stockholm, Forum, KTH, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100906Available from: 2010-09-06 Created: 2010-08-19 Last updated: 2011-08-30Bibliographically approved

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Westergren, UrbanWosinski, Lech

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