Improving the transparency and predictability of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The risk assessment process and the subsequent risk management measures need tobe constantly evaluated, updated and improved. This thesis contributes to that workby considering, and suggesting improvements, regarding aspects like userfriendliness,transparency, accuracy, consistency, data reporting, data selection anddata evaluation.The first paper in this thesis reports from an empirical investigation of themotivations, intentions and expectations underlying the development andimplementation of a voluntary industry owned environmental classification systemfor pharmaceuticals. The results show that the purpose of the classification systemis to provide information, no other risk reduction measures are aimed for.The second paper reports from an evaluation of the accuracy and the consistency ofthe environmental risk assessments conducted within the classification system. Theresults show that the guideline recommendations were not followed in several casesand consequently alternative risk ratios could be determined for six of the 36pharmaceutical substances selected for evaluation in this study. When additionaldata from the open scientific literature was included the risk ratio was altered formore than one-third of the risk assessments. Seven of the 36 substances wereassessed and classified by more than one risk assessor. In two of the seven cases,different producers classified the same substance into different classificationcategories.The third paper addresses the question whether non-standard ecotoxicity data couldbe used systematically in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. Fourdifferent evaluation methods were used to evaluate nine non-standard studies. Theevaluation result from the different methods varied at surprisingly high rate and theevaluation of the non-standard data concluded that the reliability of the data wasgenerally low.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , viii, 22 p.
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X
environmental risk assessment, pharmaceuticals, transparency, predictability, accuracy, consistency, voluntary initiatives, reliability evaluation, non-standard test data.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24832ISBN: 978-91-7415-737-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-24832DiVA: diva2:353518
2010-10-15, 231, Teknikringen 78B, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
de Wit, Cynthia, Prof
Rudén, Christina, Professor
QC 201009292010-09-292010-09-272012-02-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers