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Characterisation of Muko iron ores (Uganda( for defferent routes of iron production
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. (Metallurgy)
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Iron and its products, especially the various forms of steel, have been and still are a vital material in many sectors of life. It is utilized in many industrial activities ranging from production of heavy duty mechanical equipment to light electrical appliances and home appliances. With the world‟s iron ore consumption estimated to stand at 1.3 billion tonnes by 2025, exploitation of any existing natural deposits is of increasing importance to meet the demands of the expanding world economy. Large deposits of iron ore exist in Uganda in the eastern (Tororo) regions and south-western (Kisoro-Kabale) regions of the country. The ore deposits of Kisoro-Kabale consist of an iron-rich hematite grade with less deleterious impurities as compared to that of Tororo. Prospective quantification puts the deposits at 30-50 million tonnes of raw-ore reserves. To date the deposits lay unexploited, with small holder black smith activities taking place in the area. This work involves understanding the occurrence, quantity and quality of the ore plus its properties and characteristics in a bid to pave way for its exploitation for economic use in Uganda and beyond. Characterisation was done on the samples collected from the deposits, to establish its physical, chemical and metallurgical properties. Literature detailing the natural occurrence of the deposits plus the genesis of the parent rocks and ore and the prospective tonnage is included. The economic situation in Uganda as far as demand and consumption of iron and steel is concerned is also briefly highlighted. The chemical, physical and metallurgical characteristics that could facilitate the initial exploitation of the ore are examined with conclusive results from the representative samples examined. The results present Muko ore as a high grade of hematite with an Fe content averaging 68%. The gangue content (SiO

2+Al2O3) of 5 of the 6 samples investigated is < 4%, which is within the tolerable limits for the dominant iron production processes, with its S and P contents being < 0.1% and 0.07% respectively. Thus, Muko iron ore can be reduced in the furnace without presenting major difficulties. With respect to mechanical properties, Muko ore was found to have a Tumble Index value > 85 wt%, an Abrasion Index value < 4 wt% and a Shatter Index value < 2.5 wt%. This implies that the ore holds its form during the processes of mining, transportation, screening and descent when loaded in the furnace for reduction. Its reducibility index was found to be 0.868%/min. This is well within the desired reduction limits for the major iron reduction processes. It implies that a high productivity (in terms of iron reduced) can be realised in the reduction processes in a given period of time. Muko iron ore was found to meet most of the feed raw material requirements (physical, chemical and metallurgical) for the blast furnace and the major direct reduction processes (Midrex, HYL III and SL/RN). Furthermore, for those desired for sinter and pellet making. It can thus serve well as a feed raw material for smelting reduction and direct reduction processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: E-Print , 2010. , vii, 27 p.
Keyword [en]
iron ore, iron, characterization, physical and metallurgical properties, sinter, pellet, blast furnace, direct reduction, Muko, Uganda
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25037ISBN: 978-91-7415-725-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25037DiVA: diva2:355236
Presentation
2010-09-24, M 127, Brinellvagen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Supervisors
Projects
Sustainable Technological Development in the Lake Victoria Region
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note
QC 20101007Available from: 2010-10-07 Created: 2010-10-06 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. State of the art paper on the exploitation of Uganda's iron ore for the manufacture of iron and steel in Uganda
Open this publication in new window or tab >>State of the art paper on the exploitation of Uganda's iron ore for the manufacture of iron and steel in Uganda
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

Development of a nation is catalyzed and set on a firm foundation and path if the natural resources within the country are optimally exploited. The citizens are empowered economically, regions in the nation grow in terms of infrastructure and service provision and a lot of foreign exchange is saved; as this would have been spent in importation of raw materials. Currently, Uganda imports about 85% of the iron and steel products used in its industrial sectors. The country is endowed with iron ore deposits in the east and southwestern part, Figure 1. Each of these deposits is estimated to have about 50 million tonnes of ore reserve, with a rich grade of iron, and the lay unexploited. This paper reviews the current and traditional means of extracting and refining iron ores. The occurrences of iron ores, qualities and characterization methods have been reviewed. The mechanical, thermo-physical and thermodynamic properties plus the metallurgical extraction of the ore are also included. The aim is to understand the properties of iron and the behaviour of these when subject to various conditions, plus the technology involved in the exploitation of iron ores for iron and steel production. This will be used as a basis for the production of iron and steel raw materials for Ugandan industries, by exploiting the locally available iron ores in Uganda.

 

Keyword
ore, iron ore, iron, beneficiation, characterization, Muko, Uganda
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25068 (URN)
Note
QC 20101007Available from: 2010-10-07 Created: 2010-10-07 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of chemical composition and microstructure of raw iron ore from Muko deposits in Uganda
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of chemical composition and microstructure of raw iron ore from Muko deposits in Uganda
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study aimed at investigating the chemical composition and microstructure of raw iron ore from the deposits in Muko area (south-western parts of Uganda). The quality of this iron ore was evaluated to establish its suitability to serve as a raw material for the different routes of iron production. Samples were taken from the six hills of Muko ore deposits and tests carried out to establish their composition and properties. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed in the investigation and chemical analysis performed to determine the compounds constituting the ore. The quality of this ore was compared to generalized world market standards and ores from other nations. It was found that Muko ore is a rich hematite grade with Fe content above 65%. It has little gangue (< 6% SiO2 and 3-4% Al2O3) and low contents of the deleterious elements (P~0.02% and S<0.006%), which correspond to acceptable levels for commercial iron ores.

 

Keyword
iron ore, hematite, chemical composition, microstructure, Uganda
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25070 (URN)
Note
QC 20101007Available from: 2010-10-07 Created: 2010-10-07 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved
3. Characterisation of the physical and metallurgical properties of Muko iron ore for iron production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of the physical and metallurgical properties of Muko iron ore for iron production
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The blast furnace is still the dominant form of iron production, but over the years direct reduction methods have been consistently gaining ground due to a number of reasons. All the iron production methods have optimal requirements for the feed materials especially iron ore. Tests were carried out on Muko iron ore from Uganda to analyse its capacity to meet the feed requirements for the dominant iron production methods used today. Determination of the tumbler, abrasion and shatter indices, porosity and particle size distribution, thermo-analysis and reducibility were performed. Muko ore was found to have good mechanical properties with tumble and shatter index > 89.0 wt% and < 2.5 wt% respectively. The ore can also be easily reduced to particle size ranges suitable for the sintering operations. Its reducibility at 0.868%/min is within the acceptable range as a raw material feed for blast furnace and direct reduction furnaces. The energy requirement for heating the ore to 1100ºC was found to be higher in the samples with wider size range of irregular grains and biggest inclusions. It exhibits good physical and metallurgical properties to serve as a raw material for the blast furnace and direct reduction furnaces.

 

Keyword
physical and metallurgical properties, iron ore, iron, direct reduction, blast furnace, Muko, Uganda
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25071 (URN)
Note
QC 20101007Available from: 2010-10-07 Created: 2010-10-07 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved

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