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Thermal and thermomechanical properties of biocomposites made from modified recycled cellulose and recycled polypropylene
KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
2003 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 89, no 9, 2353-2360 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Residual cellulose fibers from the paper industry have been used as reinforcements in recycled polypropylene (PP) composites. The main obstacle to obtaining good properties with this biocomposite is deficiencies in the compatibility between the nonpolar matrices and the polar cellulose fibers used as reinforcements. The aim of this work was to improve the compatibilization between these cellulose fibers and the PP matrix with four different methods: modification by the addition of polypropylene-maleic anhydride copolymer (PPgMA) during the process of blending, preblending modification of the cellulose with a solution of PPgMA, modification of cellulose by silanes (vinyltrimethoxysilane), and acetylation of cellulose. Blends with all of the differently modified celluloses were prepared with the cellulose content varied up to 40%, and then all of the blends were subjected to thermal (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis) and thermomechanical (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) analyses. The results showed that the addition of cellulose fibers improved the thermomechanical behavior of the PP, increasing the value of the log of the dynamic modulus, and affected the thermal and thermooxidative behavior. Moreover, an advantage of the use of a recycled PP containing a small quantity of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) as a prime material in the composition was the enhancement of mechanical properties. The use of these methods for the modification of cellulose led to more desirable thermal and thermooxidative stabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 89, no 9, 2353-2360 p.
Keyword [en]
composites, fillers, poly(propylene) (PP), thermal properties
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25154DOI: 10.1002/app.12091ISI: 000183814900009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25154DiVA: diva2:356150
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strategies for improving mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for improving mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The interest for polypropylene/cellulose composites has experienced a great increase in different applications such as car interiors and construction materials. Cellulose fibres are inexpensive, renewable, biodegradable, they present lower density and their mechanical properties can be compared to those of inorganic fillers. However, several factors must be considered when designing polypropylene/cellulose composites: the poor compatibility between the hydrophilic fibres and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrix leads to a weak interface, which has to be improved by coupling agents; the hydrophilic nature of the fibres makes them very sensitive towards water absorption, which also leads to a loss of properties and swelling with subsequent dimensional instability; the reduced thermal stability of cellulose fibres leads to degradation of the fibres at thermoplastic processing temperatures producing odours in the final material; and finally the properties of composites are greatly influenced by the structure, size and quality of the fibres.

Pulp fibres modified by different methods in order to enhance the compatibility fibre-matrix, were tested. Modified fibres led to improved mechanical properties and thermal behaviour when used in composites with recycled polypropylene.

Four different types of natural fibres were used as reinforcement in two different polypropylene types: virgin and recycled polypropylene. The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly dependent on the fibre loading and slightly dependent on the type of fibre. Moreover, water absorption kinetics was studied by the Fickian diffusion theory. After absorption, a remarkable loss of properties was observed.

Hydrolysed cellulose fibres showed a greater enhancing effect on polypropylene than non-hydrolysed cellulose fibres. This is attributed to the greater mechanical properties of reduced cellulose structures.

The effect of using cellulose fibres in PP/clay nanocomposites was also studied. The interaction between the clay particles and the cellulose fibres and the combined effect of both reinforcements were believed to be the main reasons for the enhancing properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 58 p.
Series
Trita-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2005:12
Keyword
Chemistry, polymer technology, chemical engineering, materials science, polymer, Kemi
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179 (URN)91-7283-998-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-04-29, Sal K1, Teknikringen 56, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2005-04-27 Created: 2005-04-27 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

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