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Runoff modeling in flooded stream networks
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering. (River Engineering)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9202-3159
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering. (River Engineering)
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Modern Technology of Dams – : the 4th EADC Symposium, Chengdu, China, October 12-18 2007., 2007, 441-450 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper outlines a procedure about how to create a compartment type of runoff model that is flexible for prediction of flows of different magnitudes. This methodology is expected to be most useful when applied to high flow situations, when predictions normally are conceived as extrapolations far outside calibration intervals. Focus is put on how to introduce response functions that include more detailed information regarding the river network geometry and the morphology of the channel cross-sections. The parametrisation formula is based on Manning’s equation for open channel flow and the geometrical data is derived from geographical information handled in a GIS software. These response functions can be expected to provide better extrapolations of the hydrograph for future extreme floods, especially for peak flows. This has implications for safety aspects of dams as well as for the economy of hydropower production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. 441-450 p.
Keyword [en]
Peak flow modelling, response function, compartmental runoff model, river network geometry, hydromorphology, network routing model
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25301OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25301DiVA: diva2:357225
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-15 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hydraulic- hydromorphologic analysis as an aid for improving peak flow predictions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydraulic- hydromorphologic analysis as an aid for improving peak flow predictions
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Conventional hydrological compartmental models have been shown to exhibit a high degree of uncertainty for predictions of peak flows, such as the design floods for design of hydropower infrastructure. One reason for these uncertainties is that conventional models are parameterised using statistical methods based on how catchments have responded in the past. Because the rare occurrence of peak flows, these are underrepresented during the periods used for calibration. This implies that the model has to be extrapolated beyond the discharge intervals where it has been calibrated.

In this thesis, hydromechanical approaches are used to investigate the properties of stream networks, reflecting mechanisms including stage dependency, damming effects, interactions between tributaries (network effects) and the topography of the stream network. Further, it is investigated how these properties can be incorporated into the streamflow response functions of compartmental hydrological models.

The response of the stream network was shown to vary strongly with stage in a non-linear manner, an effect that is commonly not accounted for in model formulation. The non-linearity is particularly linked to the flooding of stream channels and interactions with the flow on flood-plains.

An evaluation of the significance of using physically based response functions on discharge predictions in a few sub-catchments in Southern Sweden show improvements (compared to a conventional model) in discharge predictions – particularly when modelling peak discharges.

An additional benefit of replacing statistical parameterisation methods with physical parameterisation methods is the possibility of hydrological modelling during non-stationary conditions, such as the ongoing climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. viii, 31 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2051
Keyword
Hydrological modelling, peak flow predictions, distributed routing, parameterisation, stage-dependency
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25425 (URN)978-91-7415-760-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-11-02, L43, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, KTH, Stockholm, 10:52 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101022Available from: 2010-10-22 Created: 2010-10-21 Last updated: 2012-01-23Bibliographically approved
2. Peakflow response of stream networks: implications of physical descriptions of streams and temporal change
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peakflow response of stream networks: implications of physical descriptions of streams and temporal change
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Through distributed stream network routing, it has quantitatively been shown that the relationship between flow travel time and discharge varies strongly nonlinearly with stream stage and with catchment-specific properties.

Physically derived distributions of water travel times through a stream network were successfully used to parameterise the streamflow response function of a compartmental hydrological model. Predictions were found to improve compared to conventional statistically based parameterisation schemes, for most of the modelled scenarios, particularly for peakflow conditions.

A Fourier spectral analysis of 55-110 years of daily discharge time series from 79 unregulated catchments in Sweden revealed that the discharge power spectral slope has gradually increased over time, with significant increases for 58 catchments. The results indicated that the catchment scaling function power spectrum had steepened in most of the catchments for which historical precipitation series were available. These results suggest that (local) land-use changes within the catchments may affect the discharge power spectra more significantly than changes in precipitation (climate change).

A case study from an agriculturally intense catchment using historical (from the 1880s) and modern stream network maps revealed that the average stream network flow distance as well as average water levels were substantially diminished over the past century, while average bottom slopes increased. The study verifies the hypothesis that anthropogenic changes (determined through scenario modelling using a 1D distributed routing model) of stream network properties can have a substantial influence on the travel times through the stream networks and thus on the discharge hydrographs.

The findings stress the need for a more hydrodynamically based approach to adequately describe the variation of streamflow response, especially for predictions of higher discharges. An increased physical basis of response functions can be beneficial in improving discharge predictions during conditions in which conventional parameterisation based on historical flow patterns may not be possible - for example, for extreme peak flows and during periods of nonstationary conditions, such as during periods of climate and/or land use change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. x, 74 p.
Series
TRITA-HYD, 2015:2
Keyword
Streamflow routing, peakflow predictions, parameterization, hydrological response, stage-dependency, flooded cross-sections, stream networks, backwater effects, temporal change, land use change
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172939 (URN)978-91-7595-672-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-09-29, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150903

Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2015-09-28Bibliographically approved

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