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Breath: an Adaptive Protocol for Industrial Control Applications using Wireless Sensor Networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9810-3478
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9940-5929
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2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 10, no 6, 821-838 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An energy-efficient, reliable and timely data transmission is essential for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) employed in scenarios where plant information must be available for control applications. To reach a maximum efficiency, cross-layer interaction is a major design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack. This is challenging because latency, reliability, and energy are at odds, and resource-constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the novel protocol Breath is proposed for control applications. Breath is designed for WSNs where nodes attached to plants must transmit information via multihop routing to a sink. Breath ensures a desired packet delivery and delay probabilities while minimizing the energy consumption of the network. The protocol is based on randomized routing, medium access control, and duty-cycling jointly optimized for energy efficiency. The design approach relies on a constrained optimization problem, whereby the objective function is the energy consumption and the constraints are the packet reliability and delay. The challenging part is the modeling of the interactions among the layers by simple expressions of adequate accuracy, which are then used for the optimization by in-network processing. The optimal working point of the protocol is achieved by a simple algorithm, which adapts to traffic variations and channel conditions with negligible overhead. The protocol has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes, and it has been compared with a standard IEEE 802.15.4 solution. Analytical and experimental results show that Breath is tunable and meets reliability and delay requirements. Breath exhibits a good distribution of the working load, thus ensuring a long lifetime of the network. Therefore, Breath is a good candidate for efficient, reliable, and timely data gathering for control applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2011. Vol. 10, no 6, 821-838 p.
Keyword [en]
Wireless sensor networks, control over multihop WSNs, cross-layer design, duty cycle, optimization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25697DOI: 10.1109/TMC.2010.223ISI: 000289625700006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79955412965OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25697DiVA: diva2:359478
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilICT - The Next GenerationTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel PerspectivesICT - The Next Generation
Note
QC 20101028 Uppdaterad från submitted till published(20100908)Available from: 2010-10-28 Created: 2010-10-28 Last updated: 2012-06-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Protocol Design for Control Applications using Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protocol Design for Control Applications using Wireless Sensor Networks
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the potential benefits offered by wireless sensor networks(WSNs), they are becoming an appealing technology for process,manufacturing, and industrial control applications. In thisthesis, we propose a novel approach to WSN protocol design forcontrol applications. The protocols are designed to minimize theenergy consumption of the network, while meeting reliability andpacket delay requirements. The parameters of the protocol areselected by solving a constrained optimization problem, where theobjective is to minimize the energy consumption and theconstraints are the probability of successful packet reception andthe communication delay. The proposed design methodology allowsone to perform a systematic tradeoff between the controlrequirements of the application and the network energyconsumption. An important step in the design process is thedevelopment of analytical expressions of the performanceindicators. We apply the proposed approach to optimize the networkfor various communication protocols.

In Paper A, we present an adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 for energyefficient, reliable, and low latency packet transmission. Thebackoff mechanisms and retry limits of the standard are adapted tothe estimated channel conditions. Numerical results show that theproposed protocol enhancement is efficient and ensures a longerlifetime of the network under different conditions. Furthermore,we investigate the robustness and sensitivity of the protocol topossible errors during the estimation process.

 

In Paper B, we investigate the design and optimization ofduty-cycled WSNs with preamble sampling over IEEE 802.15.4. Theanalytical expressions of performance indicators are developed andused to optimize the duty-cycle of the nodes to minimize energyconsumption while ensuring low latency and reliable packettransmissions. The optimization results in a significant reductionof the energy consumption compared to existing solutions.

The cross-layer protocol called Breath is proposed in Paper C. Theprotocol is suitable for control applications by using theconstrained optimization framework proposed in the thesis. It isbased on randomized routing, CSMA/CA MAC, and duty-cycling. Theprotocol is implemented and experimentally evaluated on a testbed,and it is compared with a standard IEEE 802.15.4 solution. Breathexhibits a good distribution of the work load among the networknodes, and ensures a long network lifetime.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Universitetsservice US-AB, 2009. vii, 28 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2009:041
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11307 (URN)978-91-7415-441-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-10-19, D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-20 Created: 2009-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-28Bibliographically approved

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Fischione, CarloJohansson, Karl Henrik

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