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Low - Temperature Basedboard Heaters in Built Environments
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5902-2886
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The European Union has adopted a plan to decrease 20 % of total energy consumption through improved energy efficiency by 2020. One way of achieving this challenging goal may be to use efficient water-based heating systems supplied by heat pumps or othersustainable systems. The goal of this research was to analyze and improve the thermalperformance of water-based baseboard heaters at low-temperature water supply. Both numerical (CFD) and analytical simulations were used to investigate the heat efficiency of the system. An additional objective of this work was to ensure that the indoor thermal comfort was satisfied in spaces served by such a low-temperature heating system.

Analyses showed that it was fully possible to cover both transmission and ventilation heatl osses using baseboard heaters supplied by 45 °C water flow. The conventional baseboards, however, showed problems in suppressing the cold air down-flow created by 2.0 m high glazing and an outdoor temperature of – 12 °C. The draught discomfort at ankle level was slightly above the upper limit recommended by international and national standards. On the other hand, thermal baseboards with integrated ventilation air supply showed better ability to neutralize cold downdraught at the same height and conditions. Calculations also showed that the heat output from the integrated system with one ventilation inlet was approximately twiceas high as that of the conventional one. The general conclusion from this work was that low-temperature baseboards, especially with integrated ventilation air supply, are an efficient heating system and able to be combined with devices that utilize the low-quality sustainable energy sources such as heat pumps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 18 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2010:4
Keyword [en]
Baseboard (skirting) heating, Low-temperature heating, Thermal comfort, Heat transfer, CFD
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25725ISBN: 978-91-7415-744-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25725DiVA: diva2:359656
Presentation
2010-10-29, Sal V2, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101029Available from: 2010-10-29 Created: 2010-10-29 Last updated: 2010-10-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Heat emission from thermal skirting boards
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat emission from thermal skirting boards
2010 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, 1123-1133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of three hydronic skirting heating systems was investigated. The main focus of this study was to ascertain whether thermal skirting boards served by low-temperature supply flow were able to suppress strong downdraught. The evaluation was made for a two-person office room with mechanical ventilation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and three different draught rating models were employed to predict the level of thermal discomfort inside the room. CFD results were validated against several analytical calculations and four sets of experimental data presented in previous studies. Numerical simulations showed that all three skirting heating arrangements were able to cover transmission and ventilation thermal losses of the office room. Horizontal and vertical heat distribution inside the room was uniform for all heating systems. CFD simulations also showed that thermal skirting boards served by 40 and 45 degrees C supply flow had difficulty in reducing the velocity of the downdraught at ankle level. Consequently the draught rating in this region was around or slightly above 15% for these cases. In contrast, heat-emitting skirting boards supplied by 55 degrees C hot water showed a better ability to suppress downdraught, and the proportion of people sensing draught at 0.1 m above the floor was low. The conclusion of this study was that thermal performance of hydronic skirting heaters with low-temperature water supply must be improved in order to counter strong downdraughts, in particular where such systems may be combined with heat pumps of other low-valued sustainable energy sources.

Keyword
CFD simulations, Draught (draft) sensation, Low-temperature heating, Skirting (baseboard) heating, Thermal comfort, air, draft
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19243 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.10.016 (DOI)000274835800004 ()2-s2.0-74149086415 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Low-temperature baseboard heaters with integrated air supply - An analytical and numerical investigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-temperature baseboard heaters with integrated air supply - An analytical and numerical investigation
2011 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 46, no 1, 176-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The functioning of a hydronic baseboard heating system with integrated air supply was analyzed. The aim was to investigate thermal performance of the system when cold outdoor (ventilation) airflow was forced through the baseboard heater. The performance of the system was evaluated for different ventilation rates at typical outdoor temperatures during the Swedish winter season. Three different analytical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to predict the temperature rise of the airflow inside the baseboard heater. Good agreement between numerical (CFD) and analytical calculations was obtained. Calculations showed that it was fully possible to pre-heat the incoming airflow to the indoor temperature and to cover transmission losses, using 45 degrees C supply water flow. The analytical calculations also showed that the airflow per supply opening in the baseboard heater needed to be limited to 7.0 l/s due to pressure losses inside the channel. At this ventilation rate, the integrated system with one air supply gave about 2.1 more heat output than a conventional baseboard heating system. CFD simulations also showed that the integrated system was capable of countering downdraught created by 2.0 m high glazed areas and a cold outdoor environment. Draught discomfort in the case with the conventional system was slightly above the recommended upper limit, but heat distribution across whole analyzed office space was uniform for both heating systems. It was concluded that low-temperature baseboard heating systems with integrated air supply can meet both international comfort requirements, and lead to energy savings in cold climates.

Keyword
Baseboard (skirting) heating, Low-temperature hydronic heating, Forced convective heat transfer, Channel airflow, Thermal comfort, CFD
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25720 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.07.011 (DOI)000282407600019 ()2-s2.0-77956226184 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101028Available from: 2010-10-28 Created: 2010-10-28 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Low-temperature heat emission with integrated ventilation air supply
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-temperature heat emission with integrated ventilation air supply
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference Clima 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25724 (URN)
Conference
10th Rehva World Congress on Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings, Antalya – Turkey
Note
QC 20101029Available from: 2010-10-29 Created: 2010-10-29 Last updated: 2013-10-29Bibliographically approved

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