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SYNAPSE:  A network reprogramming protocol for wireless sensor networks using fountain codes
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
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2008 (English)In: 2008 5th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON, 2008, 188-196 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless reprogramming is a key functionality in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In fact, the requirements for the network may change in time, or new parameters might have to be loaded to change the behavior of a given protocol. In large scale WSNs it makes economical as well as practical sense to upload the code with the needed functionalities without human intervention, i.e., by means of efficient over the air reprogramming. This poses several challenges as wireless links are affected by errors, data dissemination has to be 100% reliable, and data transmission and recovery schemes are often called to work with a large number of receivers. State-of-the-art protocols, such as Deluge, implement error recovery through the adaptation of standard Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) techniques. These, however, do not scale well in the presence of channel errors and multiple receivers. In this paper, we present an original reprogramming system for WSNs called SYNAPSE, which we designed to improve the efficiency of the error recovery phase. SYNAPSE features a hybrid ARQ (HARQ) solution where data are encoded prior to transmission and incremental redundancy is used to recover from losses, thus considerably reducing the transmission overhead. For the coding, digital Fountain Codes were selected as they are rateless and allow for lightweight implementations. In this paper, we design special Fountain Codes and use them at the heart of SYNAPSE to provide high performance while meeting the requirements of WSNs. Moreover, we present our implementation of SYNAPSE for the Tmote Sky sensor platform and show experimental results, where we compare the performance of SYNAPSE with that of state of the art protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. 188-196 p.
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25795DOI: 10.1109/SAHCN.2008.32ScopusID: 2-s2.0-51749123573ISBN: 978-142441777-3OAI: diva2:359887
5th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON 2008; San Francisco, CA; 16 June 2008 through 20 June 2008
QC 20101101Available from: 2010-11-01 Created: 2010-11-01 Last updated: 2010-11-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design of Reliable Communication Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks: Managing Interference in Unlicensed Bands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Reliable Communication Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks: Managing Interference in Unlicensed Bands
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent surveys conducted in the context of industrial automation have outlined that reliability concerns represent today one of the major barriers to the diffusion of wireless communications for sensing and control applications: this limits the potential of wireless sensor networks and slows down the adoption of this new technology. Overcoming these limitations requires that awareness on the causes of unreliability and on the possible solutions to this problem is created. With this respect, the main factor responsible for the perceived unreliability is radio interference: low-power communications of sensor nodes are in fact very sensitive to bad channel conditions and can be easily corrupted by transmissions of other co-located devices. In this thesis we investigate different techniques that can be exploited to avoid interference or mitigate its effects.We first consider interference avoidance through dynamic spectrum access: more specifically we focus on the idea of channel surfing and design algorithms that allow sensor nodes to identify interfered channels, discover their neighbors and maintain a connected topology in multi-channel environments. Our investigation shows that detecting and thus avoiding interference is a feasible task that can be performed by complexity and power constrained devices. In the context of spectrum sharing, we further consider the case of networked estimation and aim at quantifying the effects of intranetwork interference, induced by contention-based medium access, over the performance of an estimation system. We show that by choosing in an opportune manner their probability of transmitting, sensors belonging to a networked control system can minimize the average distortion of state estimates.In the second part of this thesis we focus on frequency hopping techniques and propose a new adaptive hopping algorithm. This implements a new approach for frequency hopping: in particular rather than aiming at removing bad channels from the adopted hopset our algorithm uses all the available frequencies but with probabilities that depend on the experienced channel conditions. Our performance evaluation shows that this approach outperforms traditional frequency hopping schemes as well as the adaptive implementation included in the IEEE 802.15.1 radio standard leading to a lower packet error rate.Finally, we consider the problem of sensor networks reprogramming and propose a way for ingineering a coding solution based on fountain codes and suitable for this challenging task. Using an original genetic approach we optimize the degree distribution of the used codes so as to achieve both low overhead and low decoding complexity. We further engineer the implementation of fountain codes in order to allow the recovery of corrupted information through overhearing and improve the resilience of the considered reprogramming protocol to channel errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. vii, 142 p.
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 0901
National Category
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10257 (URN)
2009-05-14, Sal/Hall C1, KTH Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 26, KISTA, 14:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-04-23 Last updated: 2010-11-01Bibliographically approved

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Stabellini, Luca
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