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Making graph theory operational for landscape ecological assessments, planning, and design
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1640-8946
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
2010 (English)In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 95, no 4, 181-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Graph theory and network analysis have become established as promising ways to efficiently explore and analyze landscape or habitat connectivity. However, little attention has been paid to making these graph-theoretic approaches operational within landscape ecological assessments, planning. and design. In this paper, a set of both theoretical and practical methodological developments are presented to address this issue. In highly fragmented landscapes, many species are restricted to moving among small, scattered patches of different resources. instead of one, large patch. A life-cycle based approach is therefore introduced, in which a metapatch is constructed, spanning over these resources, scattered across the landscape. The importance of spatially explicit and geographically defined representations of the network in urban and regional planning and design is stressed, and appropriate, context-dependent visualizations of these are suggested based on experience from real-world planning cases. The study moves beyond the issue of conservation of currently important structures, and seeks to identify suitable redesigns of the landscape to improve its social-ecological qualities, or increase resilience. By introducing both a system-centric and a site-centric analysis, two conflicting perspectives can be addressed. The first answers the question "what can I do for the network", and the second, "what can the network do for me". A method for typical planning strategies within each of these perspectives is presented. To illustrate the basic principles of the proposed methods, an ecological study on the European common toad (Bufo bufo) in Stockholm. Sweden is presented, using the betweenness centrality index to capture important stepping-stone structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 95, no 4, 181-191 p.
Keyword [en]
Least-cost modeling, Functional connectivity, Environmental planning, European common toad, Metapatch, Spatial redundancy
National Category
Landscape Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25868DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.01.002ISI: 000277501800005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77950019384OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25868DiVA: diva2:360378
Funder
FormasStandUp
Note

QC 20101103. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published (20101103). Tidigare titel "Linking Graph Theory to Operational Maps in Ecological Assessments, Planning, and Design.".

Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Network Based Tools and Indicators for Landscape Ecological Assessments, Planning, and Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Based Tools and Indicators for Landscape Ecological Assessments, Planning, and Design
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Land use change constitutes a primary driving force in shaping social-ecological systems world wide, and its effects reach far beyond the directly impacted areas. Graph based landscape ecological tools have become established as a promising way to efficiently explore and analyze the complex, spatial systems dynamics of ecological networks in physical landscapes. However, little attention has been paid to making these approaches operational within ecological assessments, physical planning, and design. This thesis presents a network based, landscape-ecological tool that can be implemented for effective use by practitioners within physical planning and design, and ecological assessments related to these activities. The tool is based on an ecological profile system, a common generalized network model of the ecological infrastructure, graph theoretic metrics, and a spatially explicit, geographically defined representation, deployable in a GIS. Graph theoretic metrics and analysis techniques are able to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of complex systems, and the generalized network model places the graph theoretic toolbox in a geographically defined landscape. This provides completely new insights for physical planning, and environmental assessment activities. The design of the model is based on the experience gained through seven real-world cases, commissioned by different governmental organizations within Stockholm County. A participatory approach was used in these case studies, involving stakeholders of different backgrounds, in which the tool proved to be flexible and effective in the communication and negotiation of indicators, targets, and impacts. In addition to successful impact predictions for alternative planning scenarios, the tool was able to highlight critical ecological structures within the landscape, both from a system-centric, and a site-centric perspective. In already being deployed and used in planning, assessments, inventories, and monitoring by several of the involved organizations, the tool has proved to effectively meet some of the challenges of application in a multidisciplinary landscape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Land and Water Resources Engineering, 2009. ix, 47 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2045
Keyword
Least-cost modeling, Functional connectivity, Environmental planning tool, Resilience, Spatial redundancy, Ecological integrity, Landscape Ecology, Graph Theory, Ecological Network Graphs, Biodiversity, Conservation Biology, Urban Planning, Regional Planning, EIA, SEA, Environmental Assessment, Ecological Indicator, Impact prediction, Habitat suitability, Species distribution, Urban ecology, GIS, Urbanization, Miljöbedömningsverktyg, Landskapsplanering, Resiliens, Ekologisk integritet, Landskapsekologi, Grafteori, Ekologiska nätverk, Biologisk mångfald, Bevarandebiologi, Urban planering, Regional planering, MKB, SMB, Miljöbedömning, Ekologisk indikator, Konsekvensbedömning, Habitatmodellering, GIS, Urbanisering
National Category
Landscape Architecture Other Environmental Engineering Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10011 (URN)978-91-7415-249-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-03-20, V3, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved
2. Connecting the dots: Network analysis, landscape ecology, and practical application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting the dots: Network analysis, landscape ecology, and practical application
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Humans have a profound impact on ecosystems, and land-use change constitutes a primary driving force in the loss of biodiversity. Habitat loss and fragmentation are key factors in this process by seriously impeding the habitat availability and movement of species, leading to a significant decrease in population viability. Landscape connectivity management able of crossing administrative and ecological spatial and temporal scales has been identified as one of the most important measures to counteract these negative impacts. The use of graph-theory and network-based landscape-ecological tools has become established as a promising way forward to address these issues. Despite urgent needs to adapt and implement such tools in planning, assessment and decision-making, surprisingly little attention has been paid to developing approaches for their effective practical application. This thesis presents the development of a toolbox with network-based, landscape-ecological methods and graph-theoretic indicators, which can be effectively implemented by practitioners within environmental assessment, physical planning and design, to analyze landscape connectivity. Recent advances in network analysis and landscape ecology are brought together and adapted for practical application, bridging the gap between science and practice. The use of participatory approaches was identified as key to successful development, and several workshops, meetings, interviews, as well as prototype testing of the developed software were conducted throughout the study. Input data and selection of species were based on the experience gained through seven real-world cases, commissioned by different governmental organizations within Stockholm County. The practitioners’ perspectives on effective practical application of the proposed toolbox were then assessed through an interview-study. The respondents anticipated improved communication with other actors in addition to being able to better assess critical ecological structures within the landscape. The toolbox was finally tested in a large-scale network analysis of impacts of the regional development plan (RUFS 2010), leading to important insights on the planning of connectivity in an urbanizing region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 52 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1062
Keyword
Landscape connectivity; Land-use planning; Urban and regional planning; Graph theory; Network analysis; Environmental assessment; Least-cost modeling; Biodiversity
National Category
Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48491 (URN)978-91-7501-198-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Formas
Note

QC 20111125

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-19 Last updated: 2014-08-27Bibliographically approved

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