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Impact of Sulfur on Particulate Matter Paying Special Attention to the Lubricant: Based on a Literature Review
Scania CV.
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study aims to find a function describing the sulfur-associated particle emissions arising from the lubricant in heavy-duty diesel engines, hypothesizing that the sulfur consumed is multiplied by a linear transfer function (LTF).

Several studies have examined the impact of fuel sulfur on particulate matter emitted by heavy-duty diesel engines, finding a linear relationship between fuel sulfur and sulfur-associated particles. For every gram of sulfur in the fuel, the sulfur-associated particulate emissions increase by approximately 0.15 gram, higher engine loads increasing such emissions.

The LTF calculated for the fuel sulfur (0.15) is applied to the sulfur in the lubricant. The lubricant sulfur LTF is likely lower than the fuel sulfur LTF since, first, the lubricant is less exposed to combustion and high temperatures and, second, the molecules in the lubricant are longer hydrocarbons that are harder to combust/oxidize, i.e., 0.15 is an upper estimate of the LTF slope for the lubricant sulfur.

Normal engine oil will at most contribute 0.15 mg/kWh to the production of sulfur-associated particles (given an engine without after treatment). A given total particle volume will result in the maximum number of particles detected in the Particulate Measurement Program (PMP) setup if the particles are approximately 20 nm in diameter (assumed to be spherical). If the volatile particle remover in the PMP setup removes 99% of the sulfur-associated particles and they are 20 nm in diameter, the number of sulfur-associated particles originating from the lubricant will be in the range of 1011 particles/kWh. After-treatment devices promoting oxidation could potentially increase the production of sulfur-associated particles by 50 times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 18 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:14
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25875OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25875DiVA: diva2:360394
Note
Q 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Particulate emissions from diesel engines have been a key issue for diesel engine developers in recent decades. Their work has succeeded in reducing the exhaust particles from the combustion of fuel, which has led to increasing interest in the contribution of particulates from lubrication oil.

When discussing oil-related particulate emissions, hydrocarbon particles are customarily referred to. This thesis uses a broader definition, in which oil-related particulate emissions are modelled not only by the hydrocarbons, but also include the ash, carbons, and sulphate oil particulate emissions.

The model developed in the project uses input data as oil consumption and oil ash content combined with tuning parameters, such as the oil ash transfer rate (ash emissions divided by oil consumption and oil ash content). Controlled engine tests have been performed to verify assumptions and fill knowledge gaps. The model can be applied to a variety of diesel engines, although the tuning factors might have to be reset. For example, introducing diesel particulate filters would dramatically reduce the oil ash emissions, since oil ash would accumulate in the filter.

Oil consumption has played a central role in the present research. The modelling results indicate that special attention should be paid to oil consumption under running conditions with a low in-cylinder temperature, since the oil survival rate is high there.

Under low-load and motoring conditions, hydrocarbons proved to be the main contributor to oil-related particulate emissions. At high engine load, oil ash emissions were the largest contributor to oil-related particulate emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 26 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2010:09
Keyword
Lubrication oil, Particulate emission, Particulate matter (PM), Oil consumption, Diesel engine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25880 (URN)978-91-7415-759-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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