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Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Particulate emissions from diesel engines have been a key issue for diesel engine developers in recent decades. Their work has succeeded in reducing the exhaust particles from the combustion of fuel, which has led to increasing interest in the contribution of particulates from lubrication oil.

When discussing oil-related particulate emissions, hydrocarbon particles are customarily referred to. This thesis uses a broader definition, in which oil-related particulate emissions are modelled not only by the hydrocarbons, but also include the ash, carbons, and sulphate oil particulate emissions.

The model developed in the project uses input data as oil consumption and oil ash content combined with tuning parameters, such as the oil ash transfer rate (ash emissions divided by oil consumption and oil ash content). Controlled engine tests have been performed to verify assumptions and fill knowledge gaps. The model can be applied to a variety of diesel engines, although the tuning factors might have to be reset. For example, introducing diesel particulate filters would dramatically reduce the oil ash emissions, since oil ash would accumulate in the filter.

Oil consumption has played a central role in the present research. The modelling results indicate that special attention should be paid to oil consumption under running conditions with a low in-cylinder temperature, since the oil survival rate is high there.

Under low-load and motoring conditions, hydrocarbons proved to be the main contributor to oil-related particulate emissions. At high engine load, oil ash emissions were the largest contributor to oil-related particulate emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 26 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2010:09
Keyword [en]
Lubrication oil, Particulate emission, Particulate matter (PM), Oil consumption, Diesel engine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25880ISBN: 978-91-7415-759-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25880DiVA: diva2:360404
Public defence
2010-11-26, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Variations in piston second land pressure as a function of ring gap position
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations in piston second land pressure as a function of ring gap position
2010 (English)In: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149, Vol. 11, no 2, 153-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inter-ring pressure and the potential reverse blow-by flow that can drive oil towards the combustion chamber can strongly influence the in-cylinder oil consumption in diesel engines. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the effect of both cycle-to-cycle variations and variations over a longer period on inter-ring pressure. The inter-ring pressure and piston ring movement were also simulated as a function of ring gap position. The experimental part of the project showed small cycle-to-cycle variations in the second land pressure as well as large variations over time. Simulations of the second land pressure with different ring gap positions showed a similar range of variation in second land pressure as the experimental variation.

Keyword
blow-by, diesel engine, inter-ring pressure, measurement, ring dynamics, second land pressure, simulation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25415 (URN)10.1243/14680874JER05509 (DOI)000277638600006 ()2-s2.0-77950988844 (Scopus ID)
Note
PC 20201020 QC 20110104Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling lubrication oil particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling lubrication oil particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines
(English)In: Journal of Aerosol Science, ISSN 0021-8502, E-ISSN 1879-1964Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
diesel engine, lubrication oil, particulate matter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25862 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Towards a Model for Engine Oil Hydrocarbon Particulate Matter: SAE paper number 2010-01-2098
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Model for Engine Oil Hydrocarbon Particulate Matter: SAE paper number 2010-01-2098
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The drive to reduce particle emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines has reached the stage where the contribution from the lubricant can have a major impact on the total amount of particulate matter (PM).

This paper proposes a model to predict the survival rate (unburnt oil divided by oil consumption) of the hydrocarbons from the lubricant consumed in the cylinder. The input data are oil consumption and cylinder temperature versus crank angle.

The proposed model was tuned to correlate well with data from a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine that meets the Euro 5 legislation without exhaust gas aftertreatment.

The measured (and modelled) oil survival shows a strong correlation with engine power. The maximum oil survival rate measured (19%) was at motoring conditions at high speed. For this engine, loads above 100 kW yielded an oil survival rate of nearly zero.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25866 (URN)10.4271/2010-01-2098 (DOI)2-s2.0-79959516712 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2011-12-15Bibliographically approved
4. Modelling of lubricant ash particles in diesel engine exhaust
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of lubricant ash particles in diesel engine exhaust
(English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
diesel engine, PM, particulate matter, oil
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25869 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. The Contribution of Oil to Carbon Particle Emissions from Diesel Engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Contribution of Oil to Carbon Particle Emissions from Diesel Engines
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reducing particle emissions from diesel engines has been an important issue in recent decades. This study assesses the contribution of oil to carbon particle emissions by reviewing the literature and theory on fuel soot formation, and combining it with estimates based on a maximum and minimum approach.

The study shows that the minimum oil contribution to carbon particle emissions for a Euro 5 heavy-duty diesel without exhaust aftertreatment is around 0.4 mg/kWh. The corresponding maximum estimate is 1.1 mg/kWh.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 10 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2010:04
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25872 (URN)
Note
QC 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved
6. Impact of Sulfur on Particulate Matter Paying Special Attention to the Lubricant: Based on a Literature Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Sulfur on Particulate Matter Paying Special Attention to the Lubricant: Based on a Literature Review
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study aims to find a function describing the sulfur-associated particle emissions arising from the lubricant in heavy-duty diesel engines, hypothesizing that the sulfur consumed is multiplied by a linear transfer function (LTF).

Several studies have examined the impact of fuel sulfur on particulate matter emitted by heavy-duty diesel engines, finding a linear relationship between fuel sulfur and sulfur-associated particles. For every gram of sulfur in the fuel, the sulfur-associated particulate emissions increase by approximately 0.15 gram, higher engine loads increasing such emissions.

The LTF calculated for the fuel sulfur (0.15) is applied to the sulfur in the lubricant. The lubricant sulfur LTF is likely lower than the fuel sulfur LTF since, first, the lubricant is less exposed to combustion and high temperatures and, second, the molecules in the lubricant are longer hydrocarbons that are harder to combust/oxidize, i.e., 0.15 is an upper estimate of the LTF slope for the lubricant sulfur.

Normal engine oil will at most contribute 0.15 mg/kWh to the production of sulfur-associated particles (given an engine without after treatment). A given total particle volume will result in the maximum number of particles detected in the Particulate Measurement Program (PMP) setup if the particles are approximately 20 nm in diameter (assumed to be spherical). If the volatile particle remover in the PMP setup removes 99% of the sulfur-associated particles and they are 20 nm in diameter, the number of sulfur-associated particles originating from the lubricant will be in the range of 1011 particles/kWh. After-treatment devices promoting oxidation could potentially increase the production of sulfur-associated particles by 50 times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 18 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:14
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25875 (URN)
Note
Q 20101103Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved

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