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Evaluation of Techniques for Transient PM-Measurements
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO.
2008 (English)In: SAE Papers 2008-01-1680, SAE International , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PM-emissions during a load transient have been measured regarding particle mass, exhaust transparency and particle number concentrations in different size ranges. The load transient was from low to medium load at constant speed and was performed with a single cylinder research engine. Mass measurements were conducted with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance . Exhaust transparency was measured with an Opacimeter. Particle Number Concentrations were measured with two different Condensation Particle Counters , CPCs, where one of them was equipped with a Particle Size Selector , PSS, in order to distinguish accumulation mode particles from nucleation mode. An Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer , EEPS, was also used in parallel with the CPCs and provided a full size distribution. For dilution, a rotating disc diluter and a two stage ejector diluter was used. In total two stages of hot dilution and one unheated. It was found that all instruments, except the TEOM, had acceptable time resolution for dynamic measurements with the dilution and acquisition setup used in this experiment. In most aspects, the measurements from the different instruments were consistent and the discrepancies could be explained by their measuring principles. In some cases, simultaneous use of different instruments could provide a more detailed description of the emitted PM. It was also concluded that the rotating disc diluter, with some reservations, could be used for transient measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International , 2008.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25897DOI: 10.4271/2008-01-1680Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84870546807OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25897DiVA: diva2:360634
Conference
2008 SAE International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Congress, June 2008, Shanghai, CHINA
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Measuring and Predicting Transient Diesel Engine Emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring and Predicting Transient Diesel Engine Emissions
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

Due to its impact on human health and the nature surrounding us, diesel engine emissions have been significantly reduced over the last two decades. This reduction has been enforced by the legislating organs around the world that gradually have made the manufacturers transform their engines to today’s complex high-tech products. One of the most challenging areas to meet the legislations is transient operation where the inertia in gas-exchange system makes transition from one load to another problematic.

 

Modern engines have great potential to minimize the problems associated with transient operation. However, their complexity also imposes a great challenge regarding optimization and systematical testing of transient control strategies in an engine test bed could be both expensive and time consuming.

 

The objective of this project is to facilitate optimization of transient control strategies. This should be done by identifying appropriate measurement methods for evaluation of transients and by providing models that can be used to optimize strategies off-line.

 

Measurement methods for evaluation of transients have been tested in several experiments, mainly focusing on emission but also regarding e.g. EGR flow. Applicable instruments for transient emission measurements have been identified and used. However, no method to measure soot emissions cycle resolved has yet been found. Other measurements such as EGR flow and temperatures are believed to have significantly decreased accuracy during transients.

 

A model for prediction of NOx emissions have been used and complemented with a new approach for soot emission predictions that has been developed in this project. The emission models have been shown to be applicable over a wide range of operating conditions with exception for highly premixed combustion. It has also been shown that models developed for steady state conditions can be used for transients operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. 53 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:07
Keyword
Emission modelling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10202 (URN)
Presentation
2009-03-24, B3, Brinellvägen 23, B3, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-01 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
2. Simplified models for emission formation in diesel engines during transient operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simplified models for emission formation in diesel engines during transient operation
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The work presented in this thesis is the result of the KTH CICERO project “Dynamic Engine Performance” in which the main objective was to develop simple models foremission formation. The demand for such models is increasing, mainly due to the tightening emission legislation for diesel engines which has lead to more complex engines and thereby more laborious development and calibration processes. Simple emission models can be a valuable tool during the development phase, e.g. when used with models for gas exchange - and after-treatment systems, and for precalibration of the engine control settings. Since engines in automotive application typically work under dynamic load, the main prerequisites were that the models should be comprehensive enough to handle the extreme conditions that can occur in engines during load transients but still simple enough to be used for calibration.

Two main approaches have been used; one where the combustion and emission formation processes were modeled from the flame front and downstream using equilibrium chemistry. In the other approach, the entire mixing/entrainment process was modeled and emission formation was modeled with kinetic chemistry. Both approaches were found to meet the requirements but had different advantages; the first, simpler approach had shorter calculation time while the latter was more comprehensive and required less tuning. The latter also resulted in a model for heat release rate which can be useful as a stand-alone model and allows the emission models to be used for untested conditions.

Another objective in this project was to identify techniques/instruments that can be used for emission measurements during transient operation since these are essential for understanding of emission formation in these conditions and as validation data for the emission models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 49 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:06
Keyword
Diesel engine, emission modeling, transient operation, NOx, Soot
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33292 (URN)978-91-7415-949-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-06, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 15:21 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110502Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2011-06-13Bibliographically approved

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