Distensibility in Arteries, Arterioles and Veins in Humans: Adaptation to Intermittent or Prolonged Change in Regional Intravascular Pressure
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The present series of in vivo experiments in healthy subjects, were performed to investigate wall stiffness in peripheral vessels and how this modality adapts to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressures. Vascular stiffness was measured as changes in arterial and venous diameters, and in arterial flow, during graded increments in distending pressures in the vasculature of an arm or a lower leg. In addition, effects of intravascular pressure elevation on flow characteristics in veins, and on limb pain were elucidated. Arteries and veins were stiffer (i.e. pressure distension was less) in the lower leg than in the arm. The pressure-induced increase in arterial flow was substantially greater in the arm than in the lower leg, indicating a greater stiffness in the arterioles of the lower leg. Prolonged reduction of intravascular pressures in the lower body, induced by 5 wks of sustained horizontal bedrest (BR), decreased stiffness in the leg vasculature. BR increased pressure distension in the tibial artery threefold and in the tibial vein by 86 %. The pressure-induced increase in tibial artery flow was greater post bedrest, indicating reduced stiffness in the arterioles of the lower leg. Intermittent increases of intravascular pressures in one arm (pressure training; PT) during a 5-wk period decreased vascular stiffness. Pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery were reduced by about 50 % by PT. PT reduced pressure distension in arm veins by 30 to 50 %. High intravascular pressures changed venous flow to arterial-like pulsatile patterns, reflecting propagation of pulse waves from the arteries to the veins either via the capillary network or through arteriovenous anastomoses. High vascular pressures induced pain, which was aggravated by BR and attenuated by PT; the results suggest that the pain was predominantly caused by vascular overdistension. In conclusion, vascular wall stiffness constitutes a plastic modality that adapts to meet demands imposed by a change in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness supports the notion that local pressure load may serve as a “prime mover” in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 51 p.
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2010:5
arterial stiffness, venous distensibility, venous flow characteristics, bedrest, pressure training
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25965ISBN: 978-91-7415-778-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25965DiVA: diva2:361172
2010-11-26, sal 3:221, Alfreds Nobels Alle 10, Flemingsberg, Huddinge, 09:00 (Swedish)
Länne, Toste, Professor
Eiken, Ola, Docent
QC 201011092010-11-092010-11-082012-03-20Bibliographically approved
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