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Repeated exposures to moderately increased intravascular pressure increases stiffness in human arteries and arterioles
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
2011 (English)In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 29, no 10, 1963-1971 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to investigate whether repeated exposures to moderate pressure elevations in the blood vessels of the arms (pressure training; PT) affect pressure distension in arteries/arterioles of healthy subjects (n=11). PT and vascular pressure-distension determinations were conducted with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm slipped through a hole in the chamber door. Increased intravascular pressure was accomplished by increasing chamber pressure. Before PT, one arm was investigated (control arm) during stepwise increases in chamber pressure to 180 mmHg. Artery diameter and flow were measured in the brachial artery using ultrasonography/Doppler techniques. Thereafter, the contralateral arm underwent a PT regimen consisting of three 40 min sessions/ week during 5 weeks. Chamber pressure was increased during PT from 65 mmHg during the first week to 105 mmHg during the last week. After PT, pressure-distension relationships were examined in both the trained arm and the control arm. Prior to and following PT, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilatations of the brachial artery were studied. PT reduced (p<0.01) arterial pressure distension by 46 ± 18%. Likewise, the pressure-induced increase in arterial flow was less pronounced after (350 ± 249%) compared with before (685 ± 216 %) PT. The PT-induced reductions in arterial/arteriolar pressure distension were reversed 5 weeks post-PT. Neither endothelium-dependent nor endothelium-independent arterial dilatation were affected by PT. It thus appears that the in vivo wall stiffness in arteries and arterioles increases markedly in response to intermittent, moderate increments of transmural pressure during 5 weeks. The increases in arterial/arteriolar stiffness are reversible and do not reflect a reduced capacity to dilate the vessels. The findings are compatible with the notion that local load serves as “ a prime mover” in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 29, no 10, 1963-1971 p.
Keyword [en]
hypertension, pressure habituation, vascular remodeling, wall tension
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26004DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834ae3abISI: 000294718500018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84855998975OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-26004DiVA: diva2:362276
Note
QC 20101109. Updated from manuscript to published.Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distensibility in Arteries, Arterioles and Veins in Humans: Adaptation to Intermittent or Prolonged Change in Regional Intravascular Pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distensibility in Arteries, Arterioles and Veins in Humans: Adaptation to Intermittent or Prolonged Change in Regional Intravascular Pressure
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present series of in vivo experiments in healthy subjects, were performed to investigate wall stiffness in peripheral vessels and how this modality adapts to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressures. Vascular stiffness was measured as changes in arterial and venous diameters, and in arterial flow, during graded increments in distending pressures in the vasculature of an arm or a lower leg. In addition, effects of intravascular pressure elevation on flow characteristics in veins, and on limb pain were elucidated. Arteries and veins were stiffer (i.e. pressure distension was less) in the lower leg than in the arm. The pressure-induced increase in arterial flow was substantially greater in the arm than in the lower leg, indicating a greater stiffness in the arterioles of the lower leg. Prolonged reduction of intravascular pressures in the lower body, induced by 5 wks of sustained horizontal bedrest (BR), decreased stiffness in the leg vasculature. BR increased pressure distension in the tibial artery threefold and in the tibial vein by 86 %. The pressure-induced increase in tibial artery flow was greater post bedrest, indicating reduced stiffness in the arterioles of the lower leg. Intermittent increases of intravascular pressures in one arm (pressure training; PT) during a 5-wk period decreased vascular stiffness. Pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery were reduced by about 50 % by PT. PT reduced pressure distension in arm veins by 30 to 50 %. High intravascular pressures changed venous flow to arterial-like pulsatile patterns, reflecting propagation of pulse waves from the arteries to the veins either via the capillary network or through arteriovenous anastomoses. High vascular pressures induced pain, which was aggravated by BR and attenuated by PT; the results suggest that the pain was predominantly caused by vascular overdistension. In conclusion, vascular wall stiffness constitutes a plastic modality that adapts to meet demands imposed by a change in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness supports the notion that local pressure load may serve as a “prime mover” in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 51 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2010:5
Keyword
arterial stiffness, venous distensibility, venous flow characteristics, bedrest, pressure training
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25965 (URN)978-91-7415-778-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, sal 3:221, Alfreds Nobels Alle 10, Flemingsberg, Huddinge, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
medicine doktorsexamen QC 20101109Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved

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