Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Effects of Motion Sickness on Human Thermoregulatory Mechanisms
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presented studies were performed to investigate the effects of motion sickness (MS) on human autonomic and behavioural thermoregulatory mechanisms during cold stress and in a thermoneutral environment. The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in autonomic thermoregulation and MS-dependent dysfunction of autonomic thermoregulation were studied using a histamine-receptor blocker, dimenhydrinate (DMH), and a muscarine-receptor blocker, scopolamine (Scop). In addition, the effects of these substances on MS-induced nausea and perceptual thermoregulatory responses were studied. MS was found to lower core temperature, during cold stress by attenuation of cold-induced vasoconstriction and decreased shivering thermogenesis, and in a thermoneutral environment by inducing sweating and vasodilatation. The increased core cooling during cold stress was counteracted by DMH but not by Scop. In a thermoneutral environment, the temperature was perceived as uncomfortably warm during and after the MS provocation despite decreases in both core and skin temperature. No such effect was seen during cold-water immersion. Both pharmacologic substances had per se different effects on autonomic thermoregulatory responses during cold stress. Scop decreased heat preservation, but did not affect core cooling, while DMH reduced the rate of core cooling through increased shivering thermogenesis. Both DMH and Scop per se decreased thermal discomfort during cold-water immersion.Findings support the notion of modulating roles of histamine (H) and acetylcholine (Ach) in autonomic thermoregulation and during MS. MS activates cholinergic and histaminergic pathways, thereby increasing the levels of H and Ach in several neuro-anatomical structures. As a secondary effect, MS also elevates blood levels of several neuropeptides, which in turn would influence central and/or peripheral thermoregulatory responses.In conclusion, MS may predispose to hypothermia, by impairment of autonomic thermoregulation in both cold and thermoneutral environments and by modulation of behavioural thermoregulatory input signals. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , v, 41 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2010:6
Keyword [en]
Motion Sickness, autonomic thermoregulation, behavioural thermoregulation, hypothermia, acetylcholine, histamine
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26058ISBN: 978-91-7415-795-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-26058DiVA: diva2:369562
Public defence
2010-12-10, sal 3:221, Alfred Nobels alle 10, Huddinge, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Medicine doktorsexamen

Available from: 2010-11-23 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2013-06-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effects of motion sickness on thermoregulatory responses in a thermoneutral air environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of motion sickness on thermoregulatory responses in a thermoneutral air environment
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, 1717-1723 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness (MS) has been identified as a non-thermal factor that can moderate autonomic thermoregulatory responses. It has been shown that MS exaggerates core cooling during immersion in cold (15A degrees C) and luke-warm (28A degrees C) water by attenuating cold-induced vasoconstriction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MS affects thermal balance in a thermoneutral air environment. Eleven subjects were exposed to rotation in two conditions, control (CN) and MS. In the CN condition subjects refrained from head movements, whereas in the MS condition they performed a sequence of maximal head movements (left, right, up, down) at 15-s intervals until they were very nauseous. Sweating rate, rectal temperature (T (re)), the difference in temperature between the right forearm and tip of the second finger (T (ff)) as an index of cutaneous vasomotor tone, perceived MS, thermal comfort and temperature perception were recorded before and during rotation, and during 90-min post-rotation. During the post-rotation period, T (re) dropped and sweating rate increased in the MS but not in the CN condition. The T (ff) response suggests that MS-induced peripheral vasodilatation which, together with the sweating resulted in increased heat loss. During rotation, subjects perceived temperature to be uncomfortably high, suggesting that MS may also affect thermoregulatory behaviour. It thus appears that also in a thermoneutral air environment MS may substantially affect thermal balance.

Keyword
Motion sickness, Behavioural thermoregulation, Vasomotor tone, Sweating
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-44492 (URN)10.1007/s00421-011-2142-6 (DOI)000302745700015 ()21892631 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84861526308 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120525

Available from: 2011-10-21 Created: 2011-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia
Show others...
2006 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 98, no 1, 48-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold- induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (Delta T (ff)), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the Delta T (ff) response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

Keyword
body temperature regulation, vasodilation, vasoconstriction, shivering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26352 (URN)10.1007/s00421-006-0217-6 (DOI)000240120300005 ()
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2010-11-23 Created: 2010-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation
2010 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 81, no 1, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the regulation of body temperature have been studied almost exclusively in animals. Recently, we have found that motion sickness, i.e. a condition where hippocampal cholinergic mismatch signals induce a release of histamine in the vomiting centre, accelerates the decline in body temperature in men during exposure to cold. In the present study we measured the thermoregulatory effects of two substances commonly used against motion sickness, i.e. the histamine (H1) receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine receptor blocker scopolamine (SCOP). In three trials, control (CN), DMH and SCOP, 10 male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min. The trials were separated by a minimum of three days and their order was alternated between subjects. In all trials the subject received, in a double blind fashion, a transdermal patch (SCOP or placebo) 12-14 h before immersion and a tablet (DMH or placebo) 1 h before immersion. Mean skin temperature, rectal temperature (T-rec), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (T-ff), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded. The fall in T-rec was smaller in the DMH than in the CN and SCOP conditions. The recordings of T-ff and VO2 suggest that SCOP attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction while DMH increases shivering thermogenesis. Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness.

Keyword
Hypothermia, Body temperature, Temperature regulation, Acetylcholine, Histamine, Motion illness
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26358 (URN)10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.06.012 (DOI)000274101500016 ()2-s2.0-71549130744 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2010-11-23 Created: 2010-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the impairment of human thermoregulation during motion sickness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the impairment of human thermoregulation during motion sickness
2010 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 82, no 3-4, 193-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness (MS) exaggerates body cooling during cold-water immersion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is influenced by two anti-MS drugs: the histamine-receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine-receptor blocker scopolamine (Scop). Nine healthy male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min in five conditions: (1) control (CN): no medication, no MS provocation; (2) MS-control (MS-CN): no medication, MS provocation; (3) MS-placebo (MS-P): placebo DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (4) MS-DMH: DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (5) MS-Scop: Scop and placebo DMH, MS provocation. MS was induced by use of a rotating chair. Throughout the experiments rectal temperature (T-re), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and third finger (T-ff) as an index of peripheral vasoconstriction, and oxygen uptake (VO2) as a measure of shivering thermogenesis, were recorded. DMH and Scop were similarly efficacious in ameliorating nausea. The fall in T-re was greater in the MS-CN and MS-P conditions than in the CN condition. DMH, but not Scop, prevented the MS-induced increase in body-core cooling. MS attenuated the cold-induced vasoconstriction, an effect which was fully prevented by DMH but only partially by Scop. MS provocation did not affect VO2 in any condition. The results suggest that the MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is predominantly mediated by histaminergic mechanisms and that DMH might be useful in conjunction with maritime accidents or other scenarios where exposure to cold and MS are imminent features.

Keyword
Hypothermia, Histamine, Acetylcholine, Temperature regulation, Motion illness
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26360 (URN)10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.04.004 (DOI)000279972700007 ()2-s2.0-77953542507 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2010-11-23 Created: 2010-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(615 kB)602 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 615 kBChecksum SHA-512
0136e19a4254af5aed3a10e6fa2743f8e7e2937a13460672750cfbb7ce65d4e38241a90fe407bb72e719aea0c349285e40b458fbcf94461928efe8dbb63c43e9
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nobel, Gerard
By organisation
Environmental Physiology
Physiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 602 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 204 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf