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Study of Open Eye Formation in an Argon Stirred Ladle
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3548-8638
2010 (English)In: STEEL RES INT, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 81, no 7, 508-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two cold models were employed to simulate the formation of open-eyes in a gas stirred ladle. In the first model, water and silicon oils were employed to simulate liquid steel and slag respectively. In the second one, liquid Ga-In-Sn alloy was used to simulate liquid steel, while 12% hydrochloric acid simulated the top slag. The experimental results indicated that the gas flow rate, height of the lower liquid and height of the top liquid has a strong impact on the open-eye size. On the other hand, the viscosity of the top liquid and the interfacial tension between the two liquids had only little effect on the open-eye size. A semi-empirical model was developed to describe the size of open-eye as a function of the heights of the two adults and the gas flow rate. The two sets of parameters obtained for the the water and Ga-In-Sn models were very different Industrial trials were also conducted to examine the applicability of the models. The model developed based on the Ga-In-Sn model could well predict the formation of an open-eye during ladle treatment. The model could be adopted by the industry to estimate the real gas flow rate by measuring the size of the open-eye online. On the other hand, the mathematical model based on water model experiments was unsatisfactory when applied to the industrial ladle process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 81, no 7, 508-515 p.
Keyword [en]
ladle treatment, open-type, modelling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26865DOI: 10.1002/srin.201000063ISI: 000280782000003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77956590384OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-26865DiVA: diva2:373705
Note
QC 20101201Available from: 2010-12-01 Created: 2010-11-29 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Study on some phenomena of slag in steelmaking process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on some phenomena of slag in steelmaking process
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present work is to study slag phenomena in steelmaking process. In order to attain thegoal, a number of high temperature experiments and simulation experiments were carried out.

Four master slags were used to study the effect of CaF2 on slag viscosity. Experimentalresults indicated the effect of CaF2 on slag viscosity depended strongly on the composition ofmaster slag. For high basicity slags, CaF2 mainly suppressed the precipitation of solid phasesat lower temperatures, leading to a lower viscosity compared to CaF2-free slags. For slagswith higher SiO2 contents, CaF2 both lowered the viscosity of the liquid phase and suppressedthe precipitation of solid phases.

The viscosities of solid-liquid mixtures were experimentally determined for silicon oilparaffinsystem at room temperature and solid-liquid oxide mixture at steelmakingtemperature. The results of both measurements indicated that the increasing trend of mixturesviscosity with particle fraction can be described by Einstein-Roscoe equation.Silicone oils of different viscosities were used to simulate slag foaming. The experimentalresults showed, at a constant viscosity, the foaming height increased first with superficialvelocity before reaching a maximum value. Thereafter, the foaming height decreased with thefurther increase of the superficial velocity. Similar, a maximum foaming height was observedat an optimum viscosity when a constant superficial gas velocity was applied. Based on theexperimental data, a semi-empirical equation of foaming height was developed. Thepredictions of the model agreed well with experiment data. The model could also reasonablywell explain the industrial pilot trial experiments.

Water-silicon oils model and liquid alloy (Ga-In-Sn)- 12% HCl acid model were employed tosimulate the formation of open-eyes in a gas stirred ladle. The experimental results indicatedthat the viscosity of the top liquid and the interfacial tension between the two liquids had onlylittle effect on the open-eye size. A semi-empirical model was developed to describe the sizeof open-eye as functions of the gas flow rate, bath height and slag height. The two sets ofparameters obtained for the water and Ga-In-Sn models were very different. Industrial trialswere also conducted to examine the applicability of the models. Liquid alloy model couldwell predict the formation of an open-eye during ladle treatment.

Two cold models, sodium tungstate-oil model and water-oil model, were carried out tosimulate the formation of droplets in a gas stirred ladle. The experimental results showed thatthe gas flow rate and interfacial tension had strong impact on the size of droplets. A semiempiricalmodel was developed to describe the size of droplets for water model. Meanwhile,the parameter obtained for water model can be used for sodium tungstate-silicone oil system.The results indicate the model has strong compatibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 46 p.
Keyword
Slag viscosity, calcium fluoride, fluid viscosity with particles, mixture viscosity
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32740 (URN)978-91-7415-955-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-12, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110419Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-19 Last updated: 2011-04-19Bibliographically approved

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