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Hybrid printing on fibre-based packaging: Performance, Quality and Market
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Variable data will play a decisive role in the future of packaging and product promotion. Variable data printing (VDP) is a technique whereby certain information can be altered in an otherwise static layout with the help of a digital printing system, and in the packaging industry a wide range of applications is possible. Inkjet printing, due to its non-impact printing (NIP) principle, is the most suitable technology to use when applying variable data on packaging and to offer customized and even personalized prints for the industry and the end-consumer (van Daele, 2005).

The aim of the work described in this thesis was to evaluate the practicability of attaining high quality variable data print (VDP) at high speed. The thesis is divided into three major parts. Part one focussed on the surface topography of corrugated board and applicable analytical methods to describe the printability of the substrate. In the second part the performance of inkjet on corrugated board liners printed at high speed was investigated and how to achieve maximum printing resolution. The final part of the thesis is devoted to a market survey of variable data printing on the North American and European markets.

Part 1 concentrated on corrugated board as substrate and its pre-conditions regarding surface topography before the printing operation. Most critical for the quality are print defects such as mottling, gloss and stripiness, all of which occur in the printing of corrugated board. Stripiness is especially critical because it is one of the most disturbing print defects on corrugated board since it is periodical and more easily perceived than random print defects (Netz, 1996). Part 1 revealed that there is a difference in surface micro-roughness between the regions on the peak line of the fluting and the regions in the valley between two peaks of the corrugation which leads to glossy lines on the peak areas.

The aim of the second part was to assess the practicability of attaining high quality VDP at high speed on a variety of liners for corrugated board production. The trial was conducted on a Kodak Versamark DP5240 press in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, in cooperation with the Mid-Sweden University - Digital Printing Centre (DPC). Nine different substrates were printed at speeds between 0.5 and 5 m/s. The results revealed that the paper type rather than the printing speed has the greatest influence on the print quality. Speed, however, is the most important technical factor for inline implementation of inkjet.

To obtain a picture of the industries’ view of variable data print on fibre-based packaging, a market survey was initiated and was addressed to people in the development, marketing and decision-making sectors of the packaging and printing industry, including manufacturers of machinery, producers of packaging and prints, and print buyers. The goal was to draw an overview map covering the people’s view of their market, trends in their fields and how they envision the future of VDP on fibre-based packaging. The conclusion was that inkjet technology has to prove itself first and to increase its technical capability, and the printing industry will then start investing more in this technology and in applications such as VDP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , xi, 73 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2010:16
Keyword [en]
packaging, corrugated board, surface topography, print quality, variable data printing, hybrid printing, flexography, inkjet, print quality, market survey
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27022ISBN: 978-91-7415-818-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-27022DiVA: diva2:374448
Public defence
2010-12-17, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101206Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-03 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Topographical micro changes of corrugated board liners induced by heat treatment and their effect on flexographic print quality. In Advances in printing and media technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Topographical micro changes of corrugated board liners induced by heat treatment and their effect on flexographic print quality. In Advances in printing and media technology
2006 (English)In: ADVANCES IN PRINTING AND MEDIA TECHNOLOGY, VOL XXXIII / [ed] Enlund N, Lovrecek M, Zagreb: ACTA GRAPHICA PUBL , 2006, 279-287 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The effect of washboarding occurs very often in the Corrugated board production process. This is a problem since it creates stripy print images in the flexographic post-print, which are more disturbing than colour deviations or smaller print defects. Much effort has been devoted to locating the problem and trying to minimize it. However, no studies have been made of whether changes in the liner surface could cause such stripy images. The worst conditions that a surface, which is supposed to be printed can be exposed to, are friction, heat, pressure and moisture at one and the same time. Exactly these conditions prevail in the double baker of the corrugated board machine. Therefore, this study was set-up trying to simulate the conditions in the double baker in order to gather knowledge of which factor(s) influence and what to what magnitude. The topography of the sample Surfaces was measured and compared with the original, untreated surface. Furthermore, the treated and untreated samples were printed in the IGT-FI laboratory flexo-printer to gather knowledge about how the above factors influence the print quality. The print was finally evaluated with print density measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zagreb: ACTA GRAPHICA PUBL, 2006
Series
ADVANCES IN PRINTING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7840 (URN)000267935100026 ()978-953-7292-03-4 (ISBN)
Conference
33rd International Research Conference of Iarigai/International-Association-of-Research-Organization-for-the-Information-Media-and-Graphic-Arts-Industries Leipzig, GERMANY, SEP, 2006
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Topographical micro-changes on corrugated board liners: A comparison between laboratory and full-scale effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Topographical micro-changes on corrugated board liners: A comparison between laboratory and full-scale effects
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2007, 367-382 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Printing on corrugated board is a complex process; many input variables affect the results to a varying extent. Not only the printing process itself has an influence on print quality; the pre-conditions of the substrate affect it as well. The topography of the liner surface is one of many important influence factors. As a first step, laboratory tests concerning the influence of the corrugated board production process on the liner surface topography were carried out (Rehberger et al., 2006). The result was that the movement of the liner on a hot plate, as compared to unmoved sheets, is the major criteria in surface roughness changes on coated and uncoated liners. Pilot trials have been carried out, since laboratory tests cannot be scaled up to real conditions. The first pilot trial with an uncoated liner did not result in any surface topography changes in conjunction with gloss, even though the corrugator was set to extreme temperature, pressure and speed conditions. These settings were adjusted to the pre-heater and double facer of the corrugator. The second pilot trial with coated liners, though, showed a clear impact on the topography of the liner surface. Using STF1-MicroGloss meter, the visually perceivable gloss lines have been analyzed and, as result, the average gloss line values computed. The results showed that production speed has the highest influence. The topographical measurements with AFM, FRT-MicroProf® and CLSM disclosed that these glossy stripes have a much lower nano-scale surface roughness as compared to the raw material. An extreme condition occurs when the corrugator is restarted after a full-stop. One collected sample from the start-up showed longish bubbles across the flute. Not only low-speed causes gloss lines, so do also the standard settings set by the operator for optimum corrugated board quality. Finally, printing trials in flexography and ink-jet were performed to determine the gloss influence of the substrate and whether the gloss lines still appear in the print. The print images were measured with the STFI-MicroGloss. The result for the flexographic printed images is that none of the gloss lines from the substrate appears in the print. The same is valid for the ink-jet printed images. Only the gloss from the print is recognizable. Further trials are necessary to shed light on the interrelation between substrate, gloss and print quality.

Keyword
Gloss, Liner, Roughness, Surface
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7841 (URN)2-s2.0-52349089510 (Scopus ID)
Conference
59th Annual Technical Conference on Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA; Pittsburgh, PA; 18 March 2007 through 21 March 2007
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Corrugated board production and its micro-scale impacts on the liner's topography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrugated board production and its micro-scale impacts on the liner's topography
2007 (English)In: In VIIIth Seminar in Graphic Arts. Pardubice, Czech Republic, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7842 (URN)
Note
QC 20101116Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. VDP on packaging: Elementary velocity study on inkjet-printed papers for corrugated board production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VDP on packaging: Elementary velocity study on inkjet-printed papers for corrugated board production
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The idea of the “HybSpeed Printing” Project at Innventia AB is to facilitate the combination of a conventional printing process with inkjet printing, in-line, in the converting process. Inkjet print is “the” printing technique for adding variable data to a conventional printed layout (van Daele, 2005). It is already available, but the current processes do not guarantee high quality print at high speed, but the constant progress in inkjet technology will mean that this is soon provided. The aim of the present project is to evaluate the practicability of attaining high quality variable data print (VDP) at high speed.

In 2008, an exploratory test was conducted on a Kodak Versamark DP5240 in Örnsöldsvik, Sweden, in cooperation with the Digital Printing Centre (DPC). As already mentioned, speed is probably the greatest issue facing the inkjet system. Flexo presses, for example, are running at a speed of 1000-1500 fpm, but the maximum speed of the inkjet test rig at DPC is 1000 fpm (5.08 m/s). Hence, this inkjet unit almost achieves the minimum requirements in speed. The question is how does the inkjet print quality at maximum speed differ from that at lower speed?

The results reveal that speed has a slight influence on the print quality and that the line thickness and print density can be compensated for by changing the print layout. To minimize the line raggedness at high speed, other counter-measures have to be considered. However, the choice of paper had a greater influence and these issues are also discussed.

Keyword
Inkjet, Variable data print, Packaging, High speed, Print quality
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27018 (URN)2-s2.0-77958465148 (Scopus ID)
Conference
62nd Annual Technical Conference on Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA; San Diego, CA; 15 March 2007 through 18 March 2010
Note
QC 20101206Available from: 2010-12-03 Created: 2010-12-03 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. A market survey about Variable Data Print (VDP) on fibre-based packaging in North America and Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A market survey about Variable Data Print (VDP) on fibre-based packaging in North America and Europe
2010 (English)In: ADVANCES IN PRINTING AND MEDIA TECHNOLOGY, VOL XXXVII / [ed] Juhola H, Lovrecek M, Zagreb: ACTA GRAPHICA PUBL , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Variable data will play a decisive role in the future of packaging and product promotion. Inkjet printing is the most suitable technology to apply variable data on packaging and to offer customized and even personalized prints for the industry and the end-consumer. To obtain a picture of the industries’ view on variable data print on fibre-based packaging, a market survey was initiated and was addressed to people in the development, marketing and decision-making sectors of the packaging and printing industry, including manufacturers of machinery, producers of packaging and prints and print buyers. The goal was to draw an overview map covering the people’s view on their market, trends in their fields and how they envision the future of VDP on fibre-based packaging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zagreb: ACTA GRAPHICA PUBL, 2010
Series
ADVANCES IN PRINTING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Keyword
Market survey, Inkjet, Variable data print, Packaging
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27020 (URN)
Conference
37th International Research Conference of Iarigai/International-Association-of-Research-Organization-for-the-Information-Media-and-Graphic-Arts-Industries Montréal, QC, CANADA, SEP, 2010
Note
QC 20101206Available from: 2010-12-03 Created: 2010-12-03 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. VDP Quality aspects on fibre based packaging: An elementary print quality study on corrugated board
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VDP Quality aspects on fibre based packaging: An elementary print quality study on corrugated board
(English)In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Variable data printing (VDP) is a technique whereby certain information can be altered in an otherwise static layout with the help of a digital printing system, and in the packaging industry a wide range of applications are possible. Inkjet printing, due to its non-impact printing (NIP) principle, is the most suitable technique to be implemented in packaging production (van Daele, 2005). Only when printing high volumes is inkjet printing much more expensive than conventional printing (Viström, et al., 2006). However, the advantages of inkjet printing could still be adopted by another approach.

At Innventia AB, the “HybSpeed Printing” project was initiated to study the combination of a conventional printing process with inkjet printing. The aim of the project is to assess the practicability of attaining high quality VDP at high speed on a variety of packaging papers for corrugated board production. The exploratory trials were conducted on a Kodak Versamark DP5240 in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, in cooperation with the Mid-Sweden University - Digital Printing Centre (DPC). Nine different substrates, white top and pure white liner, single-coated, double-coated, kraftliner and testliner were printed at a speed of 2 m/s.

Rehberger et al. (2010) described in the first part of the study that high-speed inkjet printing at 5 m/s has only an insignificant influence on the print quality. In this article, the influence of paper properties is discussed and it is shown that the paper quality has a considerable influence on the print quality. All paper qualities led to an acceptable print result at a medium print resolution. Speed is the most important factor for inline implementation of inkjet, but the tests revealed that the paper properties are most decisive for good print quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Darmstadt:
Keyword
Hybrid print, Inkjet, Variable data print, Packaging
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27021 (URN)
Note

QC 20101206

Available from: 2010-12-03 Created: 2010-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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