Guidelines for Selecting Microphones for Human Voice Production Research
2010 (English)In: American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1058-0360, Vol. 19, no 4, 356-368 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Purpose: This tutorial addresses fundamental characteristics of microphones (frequency response, frequency range, dynamic range, and directionality), which are important for accurate measurements of voice and speech. Method: Technical and voice literature was reviewed and analyzed. The following recommendations on desirable microphone characteristics were formulated: The frequency response of microphones should be flat (i.e., variation of less than 2 dB) within the frequency range between the lowest expected fundamental frequency of voice and the highest spectral component of interest. The equivalent noise level of the microphones is recommended to be at least 15 dB lower than the sound level of the softest phonations. The upper limit of the dynamic range of the microphone should be above the sound level of the loudest phonations. Directional microphones should be placed at the distance that corresponds to their maximally flat frequency response, to avoid the proximity effect; otherwise, they will be unsuitable for spectral and level measurements. Numerical values for these recommendations were derived for the microphone distances of 30 cm and 5 cm. Conclusions: The recommendations, while preliminary and in need of further numerical justification, should provide the basis for better accuracy and repeatability of studies on voice and speech production in the future.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 19, no 4, 356-368 p.
voice, measurement, microphones, requirements
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27131DOI: 10.1044/1058-0360(2010/09-0091)ISI: 000283709500006ScopusID: 2-s2.0-78249272698OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-27131DiVA: diva2:375071
QC 201012072010-12-072010-12-062010-12-07Bibliographically approved