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Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
2010 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 21, 8001-8015 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 101, no 21, 8001-8015 p.
Keyword [en]
Bio-refinery, Black liquor gasification, Pulp and paper mills, Synthesis gas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27184DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.013ISI: 000280570900001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77954564046OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-27184DiVA: diva2:375487
Note
QC 20101208Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today’s existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.

The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO2 reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO2 offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.

The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and methanol in the CBLG and the DBLG systems. When considering consequences of incremental biomass import, the DBLG system is far better than the CBLG and the CHG systems mainly due to the elimination of the lime kiln. Considerable reduction of on-site CO2 emissions could be achieved using CO2 capture and storage in the pulp mills. The CHG and the CBLG systems shows better performance results than the DBLG system comparing potential CO2 emissions offset from bio-fuels replacing fossil fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 52 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2010:48
Keyword
bio-refinery, biomass, black liquor gasification, bio-fuel, pulp mill, CO2, coversion efficiency, integration, synthesis gas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27187 (URN)978-91-7415-784-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-12-01, V21, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:22 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101208Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology.

The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO2 mitigation combining on-site CO2 reduction using CO2 capture and potential CO2 offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement.

The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production. The energy ratio is significant in the dry BLG (SNG) system with less biomass demand and considerable net steam production in the BLG island. The elimination of the lime kiln in the dry BLG systems resulted in reduced consequences of incremental biomass import and associated CO2 emissions. Hydrogen production in the dry BLG system showed the highest combined CO2 mitigation potential i.e. on-site CO2 capture potential and CO2 offset from biofuel replacing fossil fuel. The results also showed that the motor fuel replacement potential with SNG as compressed natural gas (CNG) replacing gasoline in the transport sector is significantly high in countries with large pulp industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 73 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:16
Keyword
Bio-refinery, Biomass, Black liquor gasification, Bio-fuel, Pulp mill, CO2, Conversion efficiency, Integration, Synthesis gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95524 (URN)978-91-7501-319-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved

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