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Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today’s existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.

The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO2 reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO2 offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.

The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and methanol in the CBLG and the DBLG systems. When considering consequences of incremental biomass import, the DBLG system is far better than the CBLG and the CHG systems mainly due to the elimination of the lime kiln. Considerable reduction of on-site CO2 emissions could be achieved using CO2 capture and storage in the pulp mills. The CHG and the CBLG systems shows better performance results than the DBLG system comparing potential CO2 emissions offset from bio-fuels replacing fossil fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 52 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2010:48
Keyword [en]
bio-refinery, biomass, black liquor gasification, bio-fuel, pulp mill, CO2, coversion efficiency, integration, synthesis gas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27187ISBN: 978-91-7415-784-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-27187DiVA: diva2:375522
Presentation
2010-12-01, V21, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:22 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101208Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills
2010 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 3, 937-944 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DIME) and methane (CH4) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH4 production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH4 production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

Keyword
Black liquor gasification, Biofuels, Bioenergy, Dimethyl ether (DME), Methane, hydrogen-production, gas-turbines, co2 capture, paper-mills, energy, biomass, industry, reductions, emission, storage
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18946 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.086 (DOI)000271664600015 ()2-s2.0-70450155383 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review
2010 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 21, 8001-8015 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword
Bio-refinery, Black liquor gasification, Pulp and paper mills, Synthesis gas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27184 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.013 (DOI)000280570900001 ()2-s2.0-77954564046 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101208Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, 24-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Bio-fuel, Bio-refinery, Black liquor gasification, Methanol, Pulp mill
National Category
Chemical Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27185 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.074 (DOI)000297426100005 ()2-s2.0-80055032072 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101208, QC 20120109Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production at pulp mills from a circulating fluidized bed black liquor gasification process with direct causticization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production at pulp mills from a circulating fluidized bed black liquor gasification process with direct causticization
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010, Vol. 2, 83-91 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from black liquor gasification (BLG) replacing conventional recovery cycle at chemical pulp mills is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace fossil natural gas. This paper evaluates the potential of SNG production from a circulating fluidized bed BLG process with direct causticization by investigating synthesis gas composition, purity requirements for SNG and process integration with the reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The objective of this study is to estimate the integrated process efficiency from black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG and to quantify the differences in overall process efficiencies of various bio-refinery options. The models include a BLG Island including BL gasifier, synthesis gas cooling and cleaning unit, methanation with SNG upgrading and a power boiler. The result indicates a large potential of SNG production from BL but at a cost of additional biomass import to compensate energy deficit in terms of BL conversion to SNG. In addition, the study shows a significant CO2 abatement when CO2 capture is carried out in SNG upgrading and also reducing CO2 emissions when SNG potentially replaces fossil natural gas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010
Keyword
black liquor gasification, bio-fuel, methanol, pulp mill, bio-refinery
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27186 (URN)2-s2.0-84896116171 (Scopus ID)978-145630311-2 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, 14 June 2010 through 17 June 2010
Note

QC 20101208

Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2015-04-22Bibliographically approved

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