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Aerodynamic scaling to free flight conditions: past and present
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
2008 (English)In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 44, no 4, 295-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This report summarizes some of the problems when wind tunnel data should be scaled to free flight conditions. The main challenges in performing this extrapolation is how model support, wall interference, aeroelastic effects and a potentially lower Reynolds number in the wind tunnel should be corrected. A historical review of scale effects is presented showing wind tunnel to flight discrepancies of different types of aircraft configurations. An overview of scaling methodologies and Reynolds number effects are presented and discussed. Some modern approaches where computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used, together with wind tunnel testing, in order to identify scaling phenomena are presented as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 44, no 4, 295-313 p.
Keyword [en]
Aerodynamics, Computational fluid dynamics, Mathematical models, Wind tunnels, Aerodynamic scaling, Free flight conditions, Wall interference
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9247DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2008.03.002ISI: 000257222200004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-44249120051OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9247DiVA: diva2:37740
Note
QC 20100903Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. CFD Methods for Predicting Aircraft Scaling Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD Methods for Predicting Aircraft Scaling Effects
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the problems of scaling aerodynamic data from wind tunnel to free flight  conditions. The main challenges when this scaling should be performed is how the model support, wall interference and the potentially lower Reynolds number in the windtunnel should be corrected. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed on a modern transonic transport aircraft in order to reveal Reynolds number effects and how these should be scaled accurately. A methodology for scaling drag and identifying scaling effects in general is presented.  This investigation also examines how the European Transonic Wind tunnel twin sting model support influences the flow over the aircraft. When the Reynolds number is differing between the wind tunnel and free flight conditions, a change in boundary layer transition position can occur. In order to estimate first order boundary layer transition effects a correlation based transition prediction method, previously presented by Menter and Langtry, is implemented in the CFD solver Edge. The transition model is further developed and a novel set of equations for the production terms is found through a CFD/optimizer coupling. The transition data, used to calibrate the CFD transition model,  have been extracted from a low Mach number wind tunnel campaign. At these low Mach numbers many compressible CFD solvers suffer of poor convergence rates and a deficiency in robustness and accuracy might appear. The low Mach number effects are investigated, and an effort to prevent these is done by implementing different preconditioning techniques in the compressible CFD solver Edge. The preconditioners are mainly based on the general Turkel preconditioner, but a novel formulation is also presented in order to make the numerical technique less problem dependent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. vi, 26 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2008:56
Keyword
CFD, Scaling Effects, Boundary Layer Transition, Preconditioning
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9209 (URN)978-91-7415-134-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-24, D1, Lindstedtsvägen 17, KTH, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100903Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-06 Last updated: 2010-09-03Bibliographically approved

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