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Rational Goals for the Urban Environment: A Swedish Example
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4063-3219
2009 (English)In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 7, 1007-1027 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the government's aim to create sustainable urban environments is expressed through the environmental quality objective A good built environment. The objective embraces seven sub-goals and is designed to guide central, regional and local authorities' planning towards urban sustainability. However, for objectives concerning the urban environment, such as the Swedish objective A good built environment, to form a solid basis for decision-making, two types of rationality (functionality) conditions ought to be met. First, the objectives should guide and motivate those who are responsible for their implementation. This is applicable when the goals satisfy the criteria of precision, evaluability, approachability and motivity. Second, when the goals are parts of larger goal systems, the goal systems should be coherent. Using the objective A good built environment as an empirical basis, this article gives a few examples of how environmental goals can fail to guide and motivate action towards improved urban sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 17, no 7, 1007-1027 p.
Keyword [en]
OBJECTIVES; MANAGEMENT
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9270DOI: 10.1080/09654310902949570ISI: 000266623900004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-70449393878OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9270DiVA: diva2:37836
Note
QC 20100715Available from: 2008-10-14 Created: 2008-10-14 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rational Goal-Setting in Environmental Policy: Foundations and Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rational Goal-Setting in Environmental Policy: Foundations and Applications
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 The overall aim of this thesis is to present a model for rational goal-setting and to illustrate how it can be applied in evaluations of public policies, in particular policies concerning sustainable development and environmental quality. The contents of the thesis are divided into two sections: a theoretical section (Papers I-IV) and an empirical section (Papers V-VII). Paper I identifies a set of rationality criteria for single goals and discusses them in relation to the typical function of goals. It is argued that goals are typically set to enhance goal achievement. A goal that successfully furthers its achievement is “achievement-inducing”. It holds for each of the identified criteria that, ceteris paribus, improved satisfaction of a criterion makes a goal better in the achievement-inducing sense.Paper II contains an analysis of the notion of goal system coherence. It is argued that the coherence of a goal system is determined by the relations that hold among the goals in the system, in particular the relations of operationalization, means and ends, support, and conflict. Paper III investigates the rationality of utopian goals. The paper analyzes four arguments that support the normative criterion of attainability: that utopian goals are (1) too imprecise and (2) too far-reaching to guide action effectively, (3) counterproductive, and (4) morally objectionable. A tentative defence of utopian goal-setting is built on counter-arguments that can be put forward to weaken each of the four objections. Paper IV investigates the nature of self-defeating goals. The paper identifies three types of situations in which self-defeating mechanisms obstruct goal achievement: (1) situations in which the goal itself carries the seeds of its own non-fulfilment (self-defeating goals), (2) situations in which the activity of goal-setting contributes to goal failure (self-defeating goal-setting), and (3) situations in which disclosure of the goal interferes with progress (self-defeating goal disclosure). Paper V provides a brief description of the Swedish system of environmental objectives and a preliminary inventory of the management difficulties that attach to this goal system.Paper VI contains an investigation into the rationality of five Swedish environmental objectives through an application of the rationality criteria identified in Papers I-II. The paper identifies and discusses some difficulties that are associated with management by objectives and the use of goals in environmental policy. Paper VII analyses the rationality of the Swedish environmental quality objective A good built environment. Among the conclusions drawn in the paper are that some of the sub-goals to the objective are formulated in terms that are unnecessarily vague from an action-guiding standpoint and that others are problematic from the viewpoint of evaluability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 33 p.
Series
Theses in philosophy from the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1650-8831 ; 29
Keyword
goal-setting, rationality, goal systems, precision, evaluability, attainability, motivity, coherence, operationalization, means and ends, support relations, goal conflicts, utopianism, self-defeating goals, management by objectives (MBO), environmental quality objectives, sustainable development
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9273 (URN)978-91-7415-104-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-17, E3, KTH, Osquars Backe 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100715Available from: 2008-10-14 Created: 2008-10-14 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved

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