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Daladala Buses Deregulated - Analysing Urbanization's Situations of Oppotunity via Tanzanian Example
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7140-9602
Jönköping International Business School.
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, Vol. 3, no 1, 16-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the development and growth of cities, certain stages or segments in time are considered more important than the others. Analysts have identifi ed these points in time as ‘formative moments’, ‘policy windows’ or ‘situations of opportunity’, and argue that they present policy makers and stakeholders with a unique opportunity to implement change. Thus, in an ongoing project, Managing the Metabolism of Urbanisation (MAMMUT), we need methods for identifying and analysing this kind of situations in historical processes as well as in backcasting from future scenarios. When did these situations open up and what did they consist of? Was the process intentional, accidental or even the effect of an evolutionary process? Furthermore, which was, in terms of the MAMMUT project, the ‘fi eld of options’ available to the stakeholders? (in historical situations, we can identify counterfactual alternatives though they were not elaborate or even considered at that time). From political scientist Rothstein we get the means for identifying formative moments in institutional processes of decision-making. Elinor Ostrom supplies theory that should facilitate the analysis of situations of opportunity. In order to test the feasibility of these methods in the project, we related them to fi ndings from an empirical pilot study on the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In the pilot study, the situation of opportunity is the deregulation and privatisation of the Daladala local bus transport system from the 1970s. The pilot study indicates that this turnover indeed was a formative moment or a situation of opportunity, albeit a missed one. Furthermore, these methods could also be used for analysis, at least of the institutional aspect of the situation. The social and urban structural aspects as well as the assessment of the outcome in terms of environmental impacts call for a wider set of methodologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press , 2008. Vol. 3, no 1, 16-28 p.
Keyword [en]
Dar es Salaam, field of options, formative moment, methods development, public transport, situation of opportunity, sustainable urbanisation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27618DOI: 10.2495/SDP-V3-N1-16-28Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-51149122337OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-27618DiVA: diva2:378607
Note
QC 20101216Available from: 2010-12-16 Created: 2010-12-16 Last updated: 2010-12-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Identifying Strategic Initiatives to Promote Urban Sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying Strategic Initiatives to Promote Urban Sustainability
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

is thesis explores the overarching topic of the capacity of strategic urban development decisions and initiatives (including planning initiatives) to positively and powerfully influence the ability of a city to promote sustainable patterns of development. The work is presented in six scientific papers, the first four of which focus on the development of an inter-disciplinary conceptual framework and research methodology. The concept of Situations of Opportunity and its related Field of Options is proposed as a means to identify and analyse periods in the growth of cities when urbanisation can be more easily managed so as to promote sustainable development goals. Historical studies in the cities of Stockholm, Dar es Salaam and Curitiba are used to develop the methodology. Another paper looks ahead and refines the methodology in combination with future studies, presenting a research strategy that employs Situations of Opportunity as a means to identify and explore periods in the future urban growth with significant potential for change. Building on the method developed, the remaining two papers consider the social dimension of sustainable development and how it can be promoted in the urban context, during ongoing Situations of Opportunity. The concept of social sustainability is reviewed and discussed from two different disciplinary perspectives (urban development; companies and products), exploring commonalities and differences in approaches, and identifying core themes that cross disciplinary boundaries. A case study of Eastside, a brownfield redevelopment site in Birmingham (UK), reveals how the retention of established small food outlets can provide opportunities for promoting social sustainability goals in an urban regeneration area. Overall, this thesis provides a better understanding of how transformative change can happen in cities. The Situations of Opportunity concept developed here can be a helpful way to study strategic initiatives that promote sustainability in cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010. 44 p.
Series
TRITA-SOM, ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2010:18
Keyword
sustainable urban development, transformative change, research methodology development, situations of opportunity, field of options
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27625 (URN)978-91-7415-822-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-20, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20101216

Available from: 2010-12-16 Created: 2010-12-16 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved
2. Analysing synergies between urbanization and sustainable development: Developing a draft theory through historical pilot studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing synergies between urbanization and sustainable development: Developing a draft theory through historical pilot studies
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Urbanization is an ongoing process all over the globe. People moving from rural to urban areas are the primary cause of urbanization, and history indicates that this movement of people is very hard to influence. The inflow of new residents to urban areas results in the need for more buildings and infrasystems, new institutions and often, new ways of life. How does this relate to the sustainability challenge? Given the ways in which most cities are currently developing, urbanization does not contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals.

This thesis explores a new research strategy for studying the process of urbanization and how it may hold opportunities for addressing the long-term objectives of environmentally sustainable urban development. The research strategy: MAMMUT – Managing the Metabolism of Urbanization, is a methodological and conceptual framework, it is a dynamic and cross-disciplinary approach towards understanding urban sustainability.

The main novelty in this research strategy is to explore the use of situations of opportunity – instants when stakeholders have a possibility greater than average to guide and influence the urbanization process so as to contribute to more of environmental sustainability – as units of analysis. Political scientists have used concepts similar to this, however none is as wide in scope and time. Four aspects are analysed in a situation of opportunity: urban structure, institutional framework, new ways of life and environmental impacts – enhancing the cross-disciplinary approach of the framework. Also, in terms of time frame, the pre-history, the formative moment and the outcome of each situation are studied.

A cover essay and three papers compose this thesis. The papers apply and test the above-mentioned methodology in pilot studies about historical situations of opportunity created by the development of public transport systems in Stockholm, Dar es Salaam and Curitiba. The cover essay discusses the lessons learned with the pilot studies and aims at: (a) discussing and further developing the MAMMUT methodological and conceptual framework; (b) analysing the relations and synergies between the four aspects of urbanization (as proposed by MAMMUT’s framework).

The main conclusion of the thesis is that the MAMMUT research strategy can be a useful tool for analysing the urbanization process and its relations to sustainable development. Suggestions for improvements in the framework are made. Also, the four aspects of urbanization suggested for the analysis of a given situation are confirmed relevant, however the analysis of the relations and synergies between these aspects is revealed to be as important as studying the four aspects per se.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 50 p.
Series
Trita-INFRA, ISSN 1651-0216 ; 05:023
Keyword
urbanization, sustainable development, historical pilot studies
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-447 (URN)91-7323-129-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-10-14, Sal L52, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101217Available from: 2005-10-14 Created: 2005-10-14 Last updated: 2011-01-03Bibliographically approved

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