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Heat transfer, flow regime and instability of a nano- and micro-porous structure evaporator in a two-phase thermosyphon loop
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
2010 (English)In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, Vol. 49, no 7, 1183-1192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two-phase flow instabilities which may occur at low and high heat loads were studied for a thermosyphon loop with R134a as refrigerant. The heat transfer surface of the evaporator was enhanced with a copper nano- and micro-porous structure. The heat transfer of the enhanced evaporator was compared to a smooth surface evaporator. Finally, the influence of the liquid level and the inside diameter of the riser on the instability of the system have been investigated. It was found that the enhanced structure surface decreased the oscillations at the entire range of heat fluxes and enhanced the heat transfer coefficient. Three flow regimes were observed: Bubbly flow with nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism, confined bubbly/churn flow with backflow and finally churn flow at high heat fluxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 49, no 7, 1183-1192 p.
Keyword [en]
Instability, Thermosyphon loop, Natural circulation, Heat transfer, Electronic cooling, Nano- and micro-porous structure surfaces
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27545DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2010.01.016ISI: 000278233600013OAI: diva2:378894
QC 20101216Available from: 2010-12-16 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on a Dendritic and Micro-Porous Copper Structure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on a Dendritic and Micro-Porous Copper Structure
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A novel surface structure comprising dendritically ordered nano-particles of copper was developed during the duration of this thesis research project. A high current density electrodeposition process, where hydrogen bubbles functioned as a dynamic mask for the materials deposition, was used as a basic fabrication method. A post processing annealing treatment was further developed to stabilize and enhance the mechanical stability of the structure.

The structure was studied quite extensively in various pool boiling experiments in refrigerants; R134a and FC-72. Different parameters were investigated, such as; thickness of the porous layer, presence of vapor escape channels, annealed or non-annealed structure. Some of the tests were filmed with a high speed camera, from which visual observation were made as well as quantitative bubble data extracted. The overall heat transfer coefficient in R134a was enhanced by about an order of magnitude compared to a plain reference surface and bubble image data suggests that both single- and two-phase heat transfer mechanisms were important to the enhancement.

A quantitative and semi-empirical boiling model was presented where the main two-phase heat transfer mechanism inside the porous structure was assumed to be; micro-layer evaporation formed by an oscillating vapor-liquid meniscus front with low resistance vapor transport through escape channels. Laminar liquid motion induced by the oscillating vapor front was suggested as the primary single-phase heat transfer mechanism.

The structure was applied to a standard plate heat exchanger evaporator with varying hydraulic diameter in the refrigerant channel. Again, a 10 times improved heat transfer coefficient in the refrigerant channel was recorded, resulting in an improvement of the overall heat transfer coefficient with over 100%. A superposition model was used to evaluate the results and it was found that for the enhanced boiling structure, variations of the hydraulic diameter caused a change in the nucleate boiling mechanism, which accounted for the largest effect on the heat transfer performance. For the standard heat exchanger, it was mostly the convective boiling mechanism that was affected by the change in hydraulic diameter.

The structure was also applied to the evaporator surface in a two-phase thermosyphon with R134a as working fluid. The nucleate boiling mechanism was found to be enhanced with about 4 times and high speed videos of the enhanced evaporator reveal an isolated bubble flow regime, similar to that of smooth channels with larger hydraulic diameters. The number and frequency of the produced bubbles were significantly higher for the enhanced surface compared to that of the plain evaporator. This enhanced turbulence and continuous boiling on the porous structure resulted in decreased oscillations in the thermosyphon for the entire range of heat fluxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 75 p.
Trita-REFR, ISSN 1102-0245 ; 11:02
enhanced boiling; R134a; FC-72; flow boiling; heat transfer; high speed visualization; instability; micro-channels; micro-structured; nano- and micro-technology; nano- and micro-porous structured surfaces; plate heat exchanger; pool boiling; porous media; thermosyphon; two-phase heat transfer
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47538 (URN)978-91-7501-163-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-25, E1, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
QC 20111111Available from: 2011-11-11 Created: 2011-11-10 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved

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