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Water transport in aluminium oxide-poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) nanocomposites
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
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2011 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 47, no 12, 2208-2215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polymer composites with metal oxide nanoparticles are emerging materials to be used as insulations in electrical applications. However, the extensive interfacial surfaces and the presence of polar groups on the particle surfaces make these composites susceptible to water sorption. Water sorption kinetics data were taken at 23 °C and different relative humidities (18 to 90 %) for composites based on poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate) and aluminium oxide; the latter were in three different forms: uncoated and coated with either octyltriethoxy silane or aminopropyl triethoxy silane). The equilibrium water uptake increased in a linear fashion with increasing concentration of polar groups present on the nanoparticle surfaces. Composites with well-dispersed nanoparticles showed a Fickian sorption process with a diffusivity that decreased with increasing filler content. This effect was most pronounced for composites with accessible polar groups on the particle surfaces suggesting that water saturation of the composites is retarded by dual water sorption. Composites that contained a sizeable fraction of large nanoparticle agglomerates showed a two stage sorption process: a fast process associated the saturation of the matrix phase and slow diffusion process due to water sorption of the large nanoparticle agglomerates.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 47, no 12, 2208-2215 p.
Keyword [en]
Poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate), aluminium oxide, nanocomposites, water, sorption kinetics
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28779DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.09.013ISI: 000298204500004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-81155154434OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-28779DiVA: diva2:390181
Note
QC 20110121. Updated from submitted to published 20120125Available from: 2011-01-21 Created: 2011-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aluminium oxide - poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, transport properties and long-term performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aluminium oxide - poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, transport properties and long-term performance
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polymer nanocomposites are promising materials for dielectrical use in high voltage applications and insulations. This work presents a study of nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate) with two different comonomer compositions and two different aluminium oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were either untreated, or surface-treated with two different silanes, aminopropyl triethoxy silane and octyltriethoxy silane. The best level of dispersion was found for the polymer with 13 wt. % of butyl acrylate (EBA-13) whereas the low melt viscosity of the polymer with 28 wt. % of butyl acrylate (EBA-28) resulted in insufficient mixing with uneven dispersion as a result. Octyltriethoxy silane-treated particles were best dispersed in the polymer. The nanoparticles acted as nucleation agents in EBA-28, increasing the crystallization temperature by several degrees. Studies of the water uptake in the nanocomposite materials showed the effect of the enormous interfacial surfaces and great number of polar groups present on the nanoparticle surfaces. For the well-dispersed nanomaterials, the water sorption data could be modeled by a single Fickian equation, whereas materials that contained a sizeable fraction of large nanoparticle agglomerates showed a two stage sorption process, first a fast process associated with the saturation of the polymer phase and second, a slow diffusion process due to water sorption of large particle agglomerates. The long-term performance and interaction between the nanoparticles and the phenolic antioxidant (Irganox 1010) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry in order to assess the oxidation induction time (OIT); the latter being proportional to the concentration of efficient antioxidant. It was found that the stabilizer was adsorbed to the untreated Al2O3 nanoparticles, resulting in a significant reduction in OIT. However, silanization of the nanoparticles resulted in an increase in OIT, compared to the materials containing untreated particles. Furthermore, it was shown that the stabilizer was not irreversibly adsorbed to the particles, allowing a gradual release of stabilizer with ageing time.

Abstract [sv]

Polymera nanokompositer är lovande material för användning som dielektriskt material inom högspänningsområdet. I detta arbete studeras nanokompositer framställda av två olika sampolymerer av eten och butylakrylat (EBA-13 med 13 vikt% butylakrylat samt EBA-28 med 28 vikt% och två olika typer av nanopartiklar av Al2O3. Nanopartiklarna användes antingen som obehandlade eller efter silanisering med aminopropyltrietoxysilan- eller oktyltrietoxysilan. Den bästa partikeldispergeringen observerades för de material som baserats på EBA-13 medan den låga smältviskositeten hos EBA-28 resulterade i låga skjuvkrafter under kompounderingen och en observerat ojämn dispergering och förekomst av mikrometerstora agglomerat. Partiklar som silaniserats med oktyltrietoxysilan var lättast att dispergera. Nanopartiklarna fungerade som kärnbildare i EBA-28 vilket medförde en höjning av kristallisationstemperaturen. Vattensorptionsstudier demonstrerade dels effekten av den stora specifika gränsytan mellan partikel och matris och dels av förekomst av polära grupper lokaliserade till nämnda gränsyta. Kompositer med väldispergerade partiklar uppvisade en enkel Ficksk sorptionsprocess medan de material som innehöll en betydande mängd stora agglomerat påvisade en tvådelad process. Den första processen var kopplad till mättningen av polymermatrisen och den andra kunde länkas till vattenupptaget i de stora agglomeraten. Vidare undersöktes långtidsegenskaperna hos nanokompositerna, samt om det fanns någon växelverkan mellan nanopartiklar och en fenolbaserade antioxidant (Irganox 1010). DSC användes för att bestämma induktionstiden för oxidation (OIT) vilket är ett mått på koncentrationen av aktiv fenolisk antioxidant. Det framgick det att Irganox 1010 adsorberades på nanopartiklarna, vilket ledde till en minskning av OIT. Det framgick även att de material som innehöll silaniserade nanopartiklar hade högre OIT jämfört material med obehandlade partiklar. Antioxidanten var däremot inte irreversibelt bunden till nanopartiklarna, utan frigjordes från deras ytor och blev aktiv under åldringen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: US-AB, 2011. 43 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:3
Keyword
nanocomposite, nanoparticles, aluminium oxide, poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate), silanization, dispersion, Irganox 1010, antioxidant, OIT, sorption kinetics, water, nanokomposit, nanopartiklar, aluminium oxid, poly(eten-co-butyl akrylat), silanisering, dispergering, Irganox 1010, antioxidant, OIT, vattenupptag.
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29270 (URN)978-91-7415-827-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-01-28, Rångbyrummet, KTH, Teknikringen 56, Stockholm, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110128Available from: 2011-01-31 Created: 2011-01-31 Last updated: 2011-01-31Bibliographically approved
2. Simulations of Semi-Crystalline Polymers and Polymer Composites in order to predict Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical and Diffusion Properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulations of Semi-Crystalline Polymers and Polymer Composites in order to predict Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical and Diffusion Properties
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several novel computer simulation models were developed for predicting electrical, mechanical, thermal and diffusion properties of materials with complex microstructures, such as composites, semi-crystalline polymers and foams.

A Monte Carlo model for simulating solvent diffusion through spherulitic semicrystalline polyethylene was developed. The spherulite model, based on findings by electron microscopy, could mimic polyethylenes with crystallinities up to 64 wt%. Due to the dendritic structure of the spherulites, the diffusion was surprisingly independent of the aspect ratio of the individual crystals. A correlation was found between the geometrical impedance factor (τ) and the average free path length of the penetrant molecules in the amorphous phase. A new relationship was found between volume crystallinity and τ. The equation was confirmed with experimental diffusivity data for Ar, CH4, N2 and n-hexane in polyethylene.

For electrostatics, a novel analytical mixing model was formulated to predict the effective dielectric permittivity of 2- and 3-component composites. Results obtained with the model showed a clearly better agreement with corresponding finite element data than previous models. The analytical 3-component equation was in accordance with experimental data for nanocomposites based on mica/polyimide and epoxy/ hollow glass sphere composites. Two finite element models for composite electrostatics were developed.

It is generally recognized that the fracture toughness and the slow crack growth of semicrystalline polymers depend on the concentrations of tie chains and trapped entanglements bridging adjacent crystal layers in the polymer. A Monte Carlo simulation method for calculating these properties was developed. The simulations revealed that the concentration of trapped entanglements is substantial and probably has a major impact on the stress transfer between crystals. The simulations were in accordance with experimental rubber modulus data.

A finite element model (FEM) including diffusion and heat transfer was developed for determining the concentration of gases/solutes in polymers. As part of the FEM model, two accurate pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations were developed. To predict solubility, the current "state of the art" model NELF was improved by including the PVT models and by including chemical interactions using the Hansen solubility parameters. To predict diffusivity, a novel free-volume diffusion model was derived based on group contribution methods. All the models were used without adjustable parameters and gave results in agreement with experimental data, including recent data obtained for polycarbonate and poly(ether-etherketone) pressurized with nitrogen at 67 MPa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 59 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:15
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-93519 (URN)978-91-7501-290-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-04-20, F2,, Lindstedtsvägen 28, entréplan, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120420Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-04-20 Last updated: 2012-04-23Bibliographically approved

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