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Arsenic enrichment in groundwater in the middle Gangetic Plain of Ghazipur District in Uttar Pradesh, India
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. (KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4350-9950
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, Vol. 105, no 3, 83-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater with high geogenic arsenic (As) is extensively present in the Holocene alluvial aquifers of Ghazipur District in the middle Gangetic Plain, India. A shift in the climatic conditions, weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, surface water interactions, ion exchange, redox processes, and anthropogenic activities are responsible for high concentrations of cations, anions and As in the groundwater. The spatial and temporal variations for As concentrations were greater in the pre-monsoon (6.4-259.5 mu g/L) when compared to the post-monsoon period (5.1-205.5 mu g/L). The As enrichment was encountered in the sampling sites that were close to the Ganges River (i.e. south and southeast part of Ghazipur district). The depth profile of As revealed that low concentrations of NO3- are associated with high concentration of As and that As depleted with increasing depth. The poor relationship between As and Fe indicates the As release into the groundwater, depends on several processes such as mineral weathering, O-2 consumption, and NO3- reduction and is de-coupled from Fe cycling. Correlation matrix and factor analysis were used to identify various factors influencing the gradual As enrichment in the middle Gangetic Plain. Groundwater is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in post-monsoon period, but not in pre-monsoon period. Saturation in both periods is reached for crystalline Fe phases such as goethite, but not with respect to poorly crystalline Fe phases and any As-bearing phase. The results indicate release of arsenic in redox processes in dry period and dilution of arsenic concentration by recharge during monsoon. Increased concentrations of bicarbonate after monsoon are caused by intense flushing of unsaturated zone, where CO2 is formed by decomposition of organic matter and reactions with carbonate minerals in solid phase. The present study is vital considering the fact that groundwater is an exclusive source of drinking water in the region which not only makes situation alarming but also calls for the immediate attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 105, no 3, 83-94 p.
Keyword [en]
Geogenic arsenic, Groundwater, Redox, Weathering, Factor analysis, Gangetic plain, India
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29437DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2010.04.008ISI: 000280534900003ScopusID: 2-s2.0-77954176753OAI: diva2:397538
QC 20110215Available from: 2011-02-15 Created: 2011-02-02 Last updated: 2012-02-13Bibliographically approved

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