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A cellular automaton approach to numerically simulate the contact situation in disc brakes
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0696-7506
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4461-0209
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2489-0688
2011 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 42, no 3, 253-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since brake wear is an important contributor to the concentration of airborne particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to increase our understanding of the origin of these particles. The contact situation between the pad and disc is complicated. Metal fibres in the pad (or other hard materials) form stable contact plateaus, which carry the main part of the load. A flow of wear particles in the boundary layer between the pad and disc partially stack up against these plateaus (and increase their area), and some will escape from the contact and become airborne. The purpose of this article is to investigate the possibility to numerically simulate the contact situation in the boundary layer between the pad and disc and the amount of wear that leaves the contact using a cellular automaton approach. To do so, the contact pressure, pad temperature and wear are determined in that order. Based on these results, the creation, growth and destruction of contact plateaus are simulated using a cellular automaton model. Finally, the amount of wear that leaves the contact is determined. The simulated behaviour of the contact situation correlates qualitatively with experimental observations found in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 42, no 3, 253-262 p.
Keyword [en]
Wear, Disc brake, Cellular automaton
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31151DOI: 10.1007/s11249-011-9772-zISI: 000290033400001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79957485953OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-31151DiVA: diva2:402905
Note

QC 20110317

Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the disc and pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed,some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found anassociation between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere,so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by discbrakes.

This thesis deals with experimental and computational methods focusing on airborne wearparticles from disc brakes. The eight appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure andnumerically determine the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles thatoriginate from the pad-to-disc contact. The objective is to increase the scientific knowledge ofairborne wear particles generated from disc brakes.

Papers A, B and C describe tests of disc brake materials conducted in a modified pin-on-discmachine. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure and rank disc brakematerials with respect to the concentration of airborne particles generated. Ultrafine (nanosized),fine and coarse airborne wear particles that contain metals such as iron, copper and tin werefound.

Papers D and E describe a novel disc brake assembly test stand and tests of disc brake materialsconducted in it. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure the concentrationand size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The resultsalso indicate an ability to rank different pad/disc combinations with respect to the concentrationof airborne wear particles. Furthermore, the results suggest that this test stand can be used tostudy rust layer removal from the disc and that airborne particles are generated even at low brakepressures, such as used to remove dirt from the disc.

Paper F compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in adisc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between thethree different test methods is found.

Paper G presents and discusses a simulation methodology that numerically determines theconcentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad-to-disccontact in disc brakes by using general-purpose finite element software.

Paper H discusses a cellular automaton model that describes the microscopic contact situationbetween the pad and disc in disc brakes. This model is used to numerically determine the amountof wear that leaves the contact. The results correlate qualitatively with experimental observationsfound in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 20 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:04
Keyword
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Nanoparticles, Cellular automaton
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31152 (URN)978-91-7415-871-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-27, F3 (Flodissalen), Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110317Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved

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Wahlström, JensSöderberg, AndersOlofsson, Ulf

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