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Microwave heating effects on degradation and migration of additives from polypropylene packaging
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effect of different food types, polymer qualities and microwaves on the overall and specific migration during microwave heating of plastic packaging was investigated to better understand the packaging-food interactions and the effect of microwaves on food packaging. This work focuses on the migration of chemical compounds to food simulants from commercially available polypropylene packages. Packages used were made of polypropylene homopolymer (PP), co-polymer (PP-C) and random co-polymer (PP-R). Polymers matrix changes were monitored by following possible changes in crystallinity after microwave heating. Antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 were present in all the three PP packages. Other volatiles, primarily degradation products of antioxidants, were also detected and identified in the unaged packages. Significant antioxidant degradation took place during microwave heating of the packages in the fatty food simulants 90/10 isooctane/ethanol and ethanol resulting in the formation and migration of degradation products while no degradation of antioxidants was detected during conventional heating of the packages in the fatty food simulants. Antioxidant Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 migration rates were otherwise similar during microwave heating as during conventional heating to the fatty food simulants and antioxidant diffusion coefficients were similar to earlier established values obtained during conventional heating. Antioxidant migration rates from the three polymers to fatty food simulants differed largely with respect to PP type and increased with decreasing degree of crystallinity in the materials, PP-R showing the highest migration rate. Swelling in isooctane food simulant caused the antioxidant diffusion coefficients to increase by factors of 100-1000 at 80 ºC and decreased the temperature dependence of antioxidant migration. It also increased the overall migration to above established overall migration limits during both microwave and conventional heating. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was shown to be a valuable new tool for additive migration analysis of compounds not detectable by HPLC or GC-MS.

Abstract [sv]

Effekten av olika typer av mat, polymermaterial och mikrovågor på total och specifik migrering under mikrovågsvärmning av plastförpackningar undersöktes för att bättre förstå interaktioner mellan förpackningar och mat samt effekten av mikrovågor på förpackningarna. Denna licetiatavhandling behandlar migrering av ämnen till matsimulerande ämnen (food simulants) från vanliga matförpackningar av polypropen, inköpta från matvaruaffärer. Förpackningsmaterialen var polypropen homopolymer (PP), co-polymer (PP-C) och random co-polymer (PP-R). Genom att mäta kristallinitetsgrad i proven före och efter mikrovågsvärmning kunde eventuella förändringar orsakade av värming samt matsimulanterna detekteras. Antioxidanterna Irgafos 168 och Irganox 1010 fanns i samtliga tre förpackningar. Andra flyktiga ämnen, främst nedbrytningsprodukter från antioxidanterna, detekterades och identifierades i de oåldrade förpackningarna. Betydande nedbrytning av antioxidanter inträffade under mikrovågsvärmning av förpackningarna i de feta mat-simulanterna 90/10 isooktan/etanol och etanol, vilket resulterade i bildning och migrering av nedbrytningsprodukter medan ingen betydande nedbrytning av antioxidanter skedde under vanlig värmning i samma simulanter. Migreringshastigheter för antioxidanterna Irgafos 168 och Irganox 1010 var annars samma under mikrovågsvärmning som under vanlig värmning i 90/10 isooktan/etanol och etanol och diffusionskoefficienterna för antioxidanterna var likvärdiga med tidigare uppmätta värden under vanlig värmning. Skillnader i antioxidanternas migreringshastigheter var stora mellan de olika PP-typerna och ökade med minskad andel kristallin fas i materialen, PP-R visade därför högst migreringshastighet. Svällning i isooktan ökade diffusionskoefficienterna med faktorer på 100-1000 under 80 ºC och minskade migreringshastighetens temperaturberoende. Den ökade även global migrering till över satta gränsvärden under både mikrovågsvärmning och vanlig värmning. Elektrospray-joniserings-masspektrometri (ESI-MS) visade sig vara ett användbart verktyg för analys av migrerade högmolekylära ämnen vilka ej var detekterbara med HPLC eller GC-MS.

 



Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 41 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:15
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32078ISBN: 978-91-7415-885-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32078DiVA: diva2:408578
Presentation
2011-04-01, V3, KTH, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110405Available from: 2011-04-05 Created: 2011-04-05 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Type of Polypropylene Material Significantly Influences the Migration of Antioxidants from Polymer Packaging to Food Simulants During Microwave Heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Type of Polypropylene Material Significantly Influences the Migration of Antioxidants from Polymer Packaging to Food Simulants During Microwave Heating
2010 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 118, no 2, 1084-1093 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three different polypropylene materials, polypropylene homopolymer (PP), propylene-ethylene random copolymer (PP-R), and propylene-ethylene copolymer (PP-C) are commonly used in plastic containers designed for microwave heating of food. Migration of antioxidants, Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168, from PP. PP-R, and PP-C during microwave heating in contact with different food simulants was investigated by utilizing microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The polypropylene material significantly influenced the migration rate, which decreased in the order of increasing degree of crystallinity in the materials. PP homopolymer was the most migration resistant of the studied materials especially in contact with fatty food simulants. The use of isooctane as fatty food simulant resulted in rapid depletion of antioxidants, while migration to another fatty food simulant, 96% ethanol, was much more limited. Migration to aqueous and acidic food simulants was in most cases under the detection limits irrespective of microwaving time and temperature. The diffusion coefficients were similar to what have been found previously under similar conditions but without microwaves. The effect of swelling was shown by the large increase in the calculated diffusion coefficients when isooctane was used as food simulant instead of 96% ethanol. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. I Appl Polym Sci 118: 1084-1093,2010

Keyword
polypropylene, antioxidants, chromatography, diffusion, packaging
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26887 (URN)10.1002/app.32472 (DOI)000280748400053 ()2-s2.0-77956249617 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101130Available from: 2010-11-30 Created: 2010-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS
2011 (English)In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 59, no 10, 5418-5427 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microwave heating of commercial microwavable polypropylene packaging in contact with fatty food simulants caused significant antioxidant degradation and increased specific migration as shown by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Degradation of the antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 was not detected during conventional heating of polypropylene packaging at the same temperature. The migration into aqueous food simulants was primarily restricted by the water solubility of the migrants. Using isooctane as fatty food simulant caused significant swelling and greatly enhanced overall migration values compared to the other fatty food simulant, 99.9% ethanol, or the aqueous food simulants 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, or water. ESI-MS spectra clearly reflected the overall migration values, and the number and amount of compounds detected decreased as the hydrophilicity of the food simulant increased. ESI-MS was shown to be an excellent tool for the analysis of semivolatile migrants and a good complement to GC-MS analysis of volatile migrants.

Keyword
polypropylene, antioxidants, migration, food simulant, degradation
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32077 (URN)10.1021/jf1048639 (DOI)000290691300033 ()2-s2.0-79957934168 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110613Available from: 2011-04-05 Created: 2011-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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