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The Role of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems in Southeast Asia
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3661-7016
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0297-598X
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of SIDA Conference and Workshop in Uppsala - Meeting Global Challenges in Research Cooperation / [ed] Ingrid Karlsson and Kristina Röing de Nowina, 2008, 60-67 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of municipal solid waste incinerationfor greenhouse gas mitigation and promotion of biomass-based electricity productionin a more sustainable direction in Southeast Asia. Beyond political and environmentalpressures, renewable energy sources are inherently attractive and have become a globalconcern. Resource constraints and rapid growth in world energy demand have alreadybrought oil prices over record levels. Developing countries – especially in high economicgrowth regions of Southeast Asia – often have strained resources and suffer as a result.Enhanced energy security and renewable energy development is high on the publicagenda in Thailand and other countries in Asia. Biomass and municipal solid waste(MSW) have widely been accepted as important renewable energy sources because theymay be used as carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation concepts. Solid waste management hasbecome a crucial issue in Southeast Asia since the most popular form for waste disposalstill employs open dumping. The overall objective of this investigation is to promotesound MSW management practices including waste-to-energy (WTE) recovery, as wellas to promote an expansion of biomass-based electricity. The energy recovery potentialof MSW is analyzed by investigating various types of incineration technologies. Bothconventional and more advanced hybrid dual-fuel cycles are considered to evaluate cycleperformance (electrical efficiency), CO2 emission and economic aspects. Results show that there is significant potential for environmental and waste management improvements viaMSW incineration. In Bangkok only, power production via hybrid power plants employingintegrated natural gas-fired topping cycles can achieve up to 4 TWh and 10 TWhin 2008 and 2030, respectively. The reduction of CO2 emissions is even more attractivewhen hybrid dual-fuel cycles are combined. CO2 reductions of 670 and 1,800 thousandtons, respectively, can be met in comparison with current thermal power plants. Hybriddual-fuel cycle is somewhat more attractive as it has quite short payback period (5 years)in terms of economy comparison.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. 60-67 p.
Series
Utsikt mot utveckling, ISSN 1403-1264 ; 32
Keyword [en]
Municipal solid waste, Incineration, Energy potential, Greenhouse gases
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32109ISBN: 9789197574198 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32109DiVA: diva2:409018
Conference
SIDA Conference and Workshop, 27–29 May 2008, Uppsala, Sweden
Note

QC 20110408

Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Combined Electricity Production and Thermally Driven Cooling from Municipal Solid Waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Electricity Production and Thermally Driven Cooling from Municipal Solid Waste
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasingly intensive efforts are being made to enhance energy systems via augmented introduction of renewable energy along with improved energy efficiency. Resource constraints and sustained high fossil fuel prices have created a new phenomenon in the world market. Enhanced energy security and renewable energy development are currently high on public agenda worldwide for achieving a high standard of welfare for future generations. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) have widely been accepted as important locally-available renewable energy sources offering low carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Concerning solid waste management, it has become a critical issue in Southeast Asia since the most popular form for waste disposal still employs open dumping and landfilling. While the need for a complete sustainable energy solution is apparent, solid waste management is also an essential objective, so it makes sense to explore ways in which the two can be joined.

Electricity production in combination with energy recovery from flue gases in thermal treatment plants is an integral part of MSW management for many industrialized nations. In Sweden, MSW is considered as an important fuel resource for partially meeting EU environmental targets within cogeneration. However it is normally difficult to justify traditional cogeneration in tropical locations since there is little need for the heat produced. Similarly, MSW-fired cogeneration usually operates with low capacity during non-heating season in Sweden. Therefore, it is very important to find new alternatives for energy applications from waste, such as the implementation of thermally driven cooling processes via absorption cooling in addition to electricity production.

The work presented herein concentrates first on an investigation of electricity generation from MSW power plants and various energy applications from waste in tropical urban areas. The potential for various types of absorption chillers driven by MSW power plants for providing both electricity and cooling is of particular interest. Additionally a demonstration and analysis of decentralized thermally driven cooling in district heating network supplied by low temperature heat from a cogeneration of MSW have been conducted. This study aims at developing the best system configuration as well as finding improved system design and control for a combination of district heating and distributed thermally driven cooling.

Results show that MSW incineration has the ability to lessen environmental impacts associated with waste disposal, and it can contribute positively towards expanding biomass-based energy production in Southeast Asia. For electricity production, the proposed hybrid dual-fuel (MSW/natural gas) cycles feature attractive electrical efficiency improvements, leading to greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Cogeneration coupled with thermally driven cooling is a solution that holds promise for uniting enhanced sustainability with economic advantages. The system offers great opportunity for primary energy saving, increasing electrical yield and can significantly reduce CO2 emissions per unit of cooling as compared to compression chiller. The demonstration and simulation have also revealed that there is a potential with some modifications and improvements to employ decentralized thermally driven cooling in district heating networks even in temperate regions like Sweden. Thus, expanding cogeneration towards trigeneration can augment the energy supply for summer months in Europe and for year-round cooling in tropical locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. xvi, 88 p.
Series
Trita-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 2011:02
Keyword
municipal solid waste, incineration, hybrid cycle, power production, thermally driven cooling, absorption chillers, decentralized thermally driven cooling, district heating
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32117 (URN)978-91-7415-930-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-28, Sal M2, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
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Note
QC 20110408Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2012-01-27Bibliographically approved

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