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The Use and Impact of Pesticides in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: an interview study and toxicity tests
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
2000 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
A Minor Field Study 1999 in Vietnam (English)
Abstract [sv]

En intervjustudie om användandet av bekämpningsmedel på risfält och toxicitetstest av två bekämpningsmedelpå fisk utfördes våren 1999. Intervjustudien utfördes i Mekong Deltat i södra Vietnam. I intervjustudien blev 40bönder intervjuade med frågeformulär. Bönderna var kategoriserade i fyra grupper; ris och ris-fisk bönder somanvände respektive inte använde IPM-programmet (Integrated Pest Management). Tillsammans använde de 40bönderna 39 olika bekämpningsmedel som innehöll 34 olika aktiva ämnen. Icke IPM risbönderna användesignifikant fler olika bekämpningsmedel än de andra grupperna. Under de senaste tre åren hade 80% av IPMböndernaminskat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel och ingen hade ökat sin användning. Av icke IPMböndernahade 10% minskat och 65% ökat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel. Alla IPM-bönder hade lärt sigatt använda bekämpningsmedel från utbildad personal och endast 50% av icke IPM-bönderna hade fått lära sigfrån utbildad personal. Alla bönder, förutom IPM-ris-fisk-bönderna, besprutade mest med pyrethroider. IPM-risfisk-bönderna besprutade mest med karbamater. IPM-bönderna var mer medvetna än icke IPM-bönderna ombekämpningsmedel de använde eftersom de visste att de kan påverka miljön negativt, döda skadedjurensnaturliga fiender, störa den ekologiska balansen och skapa resistenta stammar av skadedjur. Både IPMprogrammetoch fiskodling i risfält leder till mindre användning av bekämpningsmedel och gödning. Detta ledertill bättre miljö och kan kanske utgöra ett hållbart alternativ till intensiv risodling.

Två olika toxicitetstest genomfördes; ett korttids test (96 h) i akvarium och ett långtidstest (28 dagar) imikrorisfält. Common carp yngel användes som försöksdjur i båda försöken. I korttidstestet användesbekämpningsmedlen Karate och ViBasa med de aktiva ämnen lambda-cyhalotrin respektive fenobucarb. Treolika koncentrationer testades; tillverkarnas rekommenderade koncentration; halv rekommenderad koncentrationoch dubbel rekommenderad koncentration. Korttidstestet visade att Karate var extremt giftigt för fisken eftersomalla fiskarna dog efter 24 timmar. ViBasa dödade inte några fiskar men de fiskar som exponerats för ViBasa varslöare än de i kontrollgruppen. Eftersom ViBasa verkade ha en negativ effekt på fisken, gjordes ett långtidstestmed ViBasa i en mer naturtrogen miljö. Inte heller i långtidstestet dog några fiskar och tillväxten på fiskarnaskilde sig inte signifikant.

Abstract [en]

An interview study of the use of pesticides on rice fields and toxicity tests of two pesticides on fish was carriedout during the spring of 1999. The interview study was made in the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam. In theinterview study 40 farmers were interviewed with questionnaires. The farmers were categorised into fourgroups; rice and rice-fish farmers with and without integrated pest management (IPM). Altogether the 40farmers used 39 different pesticides containing 34 different active ingredients. The non-IPM rice farmers used asignificantly wider variety of pesticides than the other groups. During the last three years 80% of the IPMfarmers had decreased their use of pesticides and non had increased . Of the non-IPM farmers 10% haddecreased and 65% had increased their use of pesticides. All the IPM farmers had learned how to use pesticidesfrom educated staff, while only 50% of the non IPM-farmers had learned from educated staff. All the farmers,except the IPM rice-fish farmers, sprayed mostly pyrethroids. The IPM rice-fish farmers mostly sprayedcarbamates. IPM farmers were more aware than the non-IPM farmers about the pesticides they used becausethey knew that they can affect the environment negatively, kill natural enemies to pests, disturb the ecologicalbalance and create resistant strains of pests. Both the IPM-program and fish farming in rice fields lead to less useof pesticides and fertiliser. This leads to better environment and could maybe provide a sustainable alternative tointensive rice cropping.

Two different toxicity-tests were carried out; a short-term test (96 h) in aquariums and a long-term test (28 days)in micro rice fields. The tests were designed to determine if the pesticides had any effect on fish at theconcentration resulting from following the recommendations given by the manufactures. The pesticides wereViBasa and Karate with the active ingredient fenobucarb and lambda-cyhalotrin respectively. Common carpjuveniles (Cyprinus carpio) were used as test species for both short-term and long-term tests. The short-term testshowed that the recommended dose of Karate was extremely toxic to common carp as all fish died after 24hours. ViBasa did not kill the fish but the fish exposed to ViBasa were slower than the fish in the control after96 hours. Since ViBasa seemed to have a negative effect on the fish, a long-term test in a more realisticenvironment was conducted to get a more comprehensive picture of the negative side effects from the pesticide.In the long-term test no mortality was observed in any of the micro rice fields. The growth of the fish was notsignificantly different and we could not observe any damage to tissues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. , 27 p.
Series
, TRITA-KET-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2000:14
Keyword [en]
Vietnam, IPM, pesticide, Mekong Delta, rice farming, rice-fish farming, toxicitytest, Karate, ViBasa, lambda-cyhalothrin, fenobucarb, common carp
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32434OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32434DiVA: diva2:410634
Subject / course
Industrial Ecology
Educational program
Degree of Master - Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Infrastructure
Uppsok
Technology
Note

Industrial Ecology www.ima.kth.se NR 20140804

Available from: 2016-03-26 Created: 2011-04-14 Last updated: 2016-03-26Bibliographically approved

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