Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
In Central America, the deforestation is one of the most severe environmental problems. Thedeforestation contributes to deteriorate water resources, both in quality and in quantity, whichcould lead to a shortage of water in the future. This has been given attention in the communityof San Ramón and today a series of projects are going on to improve the situation. One ofthese is initiated by FOCUENCAS. This study is a part of the project and consists of, amongother things, analyzing water quality and quantity and to try to derive these from the land usewithin the smaller watershed, a so-called microcuenca. The watershed is used as water supplyby San Ramón, but is insufficient for the needs of the society. A series of measures toimprove the situation will be proposed based on the results of the study. The study wasmodeled according to the DPSIR-model, to easier organize the obtained information and toclarify the interactions causing the situation in the watershed El Limón.
The results from the analysis of the water quality showed that the treated drinking water wassatisfactory. The contents of contaminations were all under limits set by the WHO. Therewere high contents of bacteria though in different parts of the watershed. It was not possibleto relate the water quality to the land uses within the watershed, due to the fact that the resultsfrom the analysis differed much from the presumptions.
The results from the water quantity measurements showed that the greater part of the waterproduction occurred east of the brook ravine. West of it, the deforestation has occurred undera longer time span, which could explain the lesser water production on this side. It has notbeen possible to come to any certain conclusions from the comparisons with earlier waterquantity measurements due to incomplete data.
The big cause of the water shortage in San Ramón is the lacking capacity of the watertreatment plant and the distribution. From this, it is proposed that measures must be taken toimprove the facilities. Measures should also be taken within the watershed to stabilize thesituation in the long term. For this, it is proposed that agreements, covenants and dialoguesbetween concerned parties shall be initiated as a first step. We must stress though, that thestudy has to be continued and completed in order to be able to take correct measures.
2002. , 66 p.