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Electrostatic control of the domain switching dynamics in congruent LiNbO3 via periodic proton-exchange
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7688-1367
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2508-391X
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7185-0457
2011 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 12, 122910Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a model for the poling-inhibiting action of proton-exchange, associated to nonuniform fields induced in the crystal by the vanishing of ferroelectricity in the beta-phase of HxLi1-xNbO3. Predictions are corroborated by experimental results on the poling of 0.5 mm thick congruent LiNbO3 substrates with periods around 8 mu m, yielding regular bulk domain structures with aspect ratios as high as 250.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP) , 2011. Vol. 98, no 12, 122910
Keyword [en]
LITHIUM-NIOBATE, WAVE-GUIDES, POLED LINBO3
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32642DOI: 10.1063/1.3571559ISI: 000288808200065Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79953868812OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32642DiVA: diva2:411434
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20110418

Available from: 2011-04-18 Created: 2011-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Engineering ferroelectric domains and charge transport by proton exchange in lithium niobate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering ferroelectric domains and charge transport by proton exchange in lithium niobate
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ferroelectrics are dielectric materials possessing a switchable spontaneous polarization, which have attracted a growing interest for a broad variety of applications such as ferroelectric lithography, artificial photosynthesis, random and dynamic access memories (FeRAMs and DRAM), but also for the fabrication of devices for nonlinear optics, etc. All the aforementioned applications rely on the control of the ferroelectric domains arrangement, or the charge distribution and transport. In this regard, the main prerequisite is the engineering of the spontaneous polarization, obtained by reversing its orientation or locally inhibiting it. In the latter case, the interface created by the spatial discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization generates local charge accumulation, which can be used to extend the capabilities of ferroelectric materials.

This thesis shows how engineering the spontaneous polarization in lithium niobate (LN) by means of proton exchange (PE), a temperature-activated ion exchange process, can be used to develop novel approaches for ferroelectric domain structuring, as well as fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures and control of ionic/electronic transport in this crystal.

In particular, it is shown how the electrostatic charge at PE:LN junctions lying below the crystal surface can effectively counteract lateral domain broadening, which in standard electric field poling hampers the fabrication of ferroelectric gratings for Quasi-Phase Matching with periods shorter than 10 μm. By using such an approach, ferroelectric gratings with periods as small as ~ 8 μm are fabricated and characterized for efficient nonlinear optical applications. The viability of the approach for the fabrication of denser gratings is also investigated.

 The charge distribution at PE:LN junctions lying on the crystal surface is modelled and used to drive the deposition of self-assembled nanowires by means of silver photoreduction. Such a novel approach for PE lithography is characterized for different experimental conditions. The results highlight a marked influence of the orientation of the spontaneous polarization, the deposition times, as well as the reactants concentrations and the doping of the substrate with MgO.

Based on the fact that proton exchange locally reduces the spontaneous polarization, a quick and non-destructive method for imaging PE regions in lithium niobate with nanoscale resolution is also developed by using Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. Moreover the relative reduction of the piezoelectric d33 coefficient associated to PE is estimated in lithium niobate substrates with and without MgO-doping.

Finally, by using advanced Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques, the features of charge transport in PE regions are further investigated with nanoscale resolution. A strong unipolar response is found and interpreted in light of ionic-electronic motion coupling due to the interplay of interstitial protons in the PE regions, nanoscale electrochemical reactions at the tip-surface interface, and rectifying metal-PE junctions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xviii, 153 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2015:15
Keyword
Lithium niobate, Ferroelectrics
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering; Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-162269 (URN)978-91-7595-482-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-04-15, Fd5, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150325

Available from: 2015-03-25 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved

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