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An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9008-8402
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2650-0121
2011 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 4, 3592-3598 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a grating for coupling between a single mode silica fiber and the TE mode in a silicon photonic waveguide on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating is etched completely through the silicon device layer, thus permitting the fabrication of through-etched surface coupled silicon nanophotonic circuits in a single lithography step. Furthermore, the grating is apodized to match the diffracted wave to the mode profile of the fiber. We experimentally demonstrate a coupling efficiency of 35% with a 1 dB bandwidth of 47 nm at 1536 nm on a standard SOI substrate. Furthermore, we show by simulation that with an optimized buried oxide thickness, a coupling efficiency of 72% and a 1 dB bandwidth of 38 nm at 1550 nm is achievable. This is, to our knowledge, the highest simulated coupling efficiency for single-etch TE-mode grating couplers. In particular, simulations show that apodizing a conventional periodic through-etched grating decreases the back-reflection into the waveguide from 21% to 0.1%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 19, no 4, 3592-3598 p.
Keyword [en]
1550 nm, Apodizing, Buried oxide thickness, Coupling efficiency, Diffracted waves, Etched gratings, Etched surface, Fiber surface, Grating couplers, Mode profiles, Nanophotonic circuits, Silica fibers, Silicon devices, Silicon photonics, Silicon-on-insulator substrates, Single mode, SOI substrates, SOI waveguides, TE mode, Coupled circuits, Lithography, Nanophotonics, Photonic devices, Silica
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32605DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.003592ISI: 000288860000078Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79951642749OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32605DiVA: diva2:411800
Note
QC 20110419Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A photonic dye-based sensing system on a chip produced at wafer scale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A photonic dye-based sensing system on a chip produced at wafer scale
Show others...
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119837 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-03-24 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved
2. Wafer-scale Vacuum and Liquid Packaging Concepts for an Optical Thin-film Gas Sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-scale Vacuum and Liquid Packaging Concepts for an Optical Thin-film Gas Sensor
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis treats the development of packaging and integration methods for the cost-efficient encapsulation and packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The packaging of MEMS devices is often more costly than the device itself, partly because the packaging can be crucial for the performance of the device. For devices which contain liquids or needs to be enclosed in a vacuum, the packaging can account for up to 80% of the total cost of the device.

The first part of this thesis presents the integration scheme for an optical dye thin film NO2-gas sensor, designed using cost-efficient implementations of wafer-scale methods. This work includes design and fabrication of photonic subcomponents in addition to the main effort of integration and packaging of the dye-film. A specific proof of concept target was for NO2 monitoring in a car tunnel.

The second part of this thesis deals with the wafer-scale packaging methods developed for the sensing device. The developed packaging method, based on low-temperature plastic deformation of gold sealing structures, is further demonstrated as a generic method for other hermetic liquid and vacuum packaging applications. In the developed packaging methods, the mechanically squeezed gold sealing material is both electroplated microstruc- tures and wire bonded stud bumps. The electroplated rings act like a more hermetic version of rubber sealing rings while compressed in conjunction with a cavity forming wafer bonding process. The stud bump sealing processes is on the other hand applied on completed cavities with narrow access ports, to seal either a vacuum or liquid inside the cavities at room temperature. Additionally, the resulting hermeticity of primarily the vacuum sealing methods is thoroughly investigated.

Two of the sealing methods presented require permanent mechanical fixation in order to complete the packaging process. Two solutions to this problem are presented in this thesis. First, a more traditional wafer bonding method using tin-soldering is demonstrated. Second, a novel full-wafer epoxy underfill-process using a microfluidic distribution network is demonstrated using a room temperature process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. ix, 65 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:010
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, Nanoelectromechanical systems, NEMS, silicon, wafer-level, packaging, vacuum packaging, liquid encapsulation, integration, wire bonding, grating coupler, waveguide, Fabry-Perot resonator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119839 (URN)978-91-7501-676-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, Q2, Osquldas Väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved

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Gylfason, Kristinn B.Sohlström, Hans

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