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Annotation profiles: Configuring forms to edit RDF
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC). (Knowledge Management Research group)
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media. (Knowledge Management Research group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5222-970X
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC). (Knowledge Management Research group)
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media. (Knowledge Management Research group)
2007 (English)In: DCMI '07 Proceedings of the 2007 international conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications: application profiles: theory and practice, 2007, 10-21 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most of today's generic annotation tools for semantic web metadata (RDF) are designed forexperts. People with no or little knowledge about RDF are therefore forced to use simplified andoften domain-specific tools that work with fixed sets of metadata elements. This paper introducesthe Annotation Profile Model as a configuration mechanism from which annotation tools can beautomatically generated. The intention is to encourage metadata- or domain experts to defineannotation profiles according to metadata vocabularies. This will allow end-users oradministrators to select appropriate annotation profiles for the task at hand, and then an editorwill be provided by the underlying system. This paper discusses the design of the AnnotationProfile Model, which consists of a data-capturing part (the Graph Pattern Model) and apresentation part (the Form Template model). An implementation that can generate both web-based and standalone editors is also introduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. 10-21 p.
Keyword [en]
Metadata, Application Profile, RDF
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32783Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84866239822OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32783DiVA: diva2:411876
Conference
International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Singapore, 28-31 August 2007
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-19 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Flexible Authoring of Metadata for Learning: Assembling forms from a declarative data and view model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Authoring of Metadata for Learning: Assembling forms from a declarative data and view model
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the vast amount of information in various formats that is produced today it becomes necessary for consumers ofthis information to be able to judge if it is relevant for them. One way to enable that is to provide information abouteach piece of information, i.e. provide metadata. When metadata is to be edited by a human being, a metadata editorneeds to be provided. This thesis describes the design and practical use of a configuration mechanism for metadataeditors called annotation profiles, that is intended to enable a flexible metadata editing environment. An annotationprofile is an instance of an Annotation Profile Model (APM), which is an information model that can gatherinformation from many sources. This model has been developed by the author together with colleagues at the RoyalInstitute of Technology and Uppsala University in Sweden. It is designed so that an annotation profile can holdenough information for an application to generate a customized metadata editor from it. The APM works withmetadata expressed in a format called RDF (Resource Description Framwork), which forms the technical basis for theSemantic Web. It also works with metadata that is expressed using a model similar to RDF. The RDF model providesa simple way of combining metadata standards and this makes it possible for the resulting metadata editor to combinedifferent metadata standards into one metadata description. Resources that are meant to be used in a learning situationcan be of various media types (audio- or video-files, documents, etc.), which gives rise to a situation where differentmetadata standards have to be used in combination. Such a resource would typically contain educational metadatafrom one standard, but for each media type a different metadata standard might be used for the technical description.To combine all the metadata into a single metadata record is desirable and made possible when using RDF. The focusin this thesis is on metadata for resources that can be used in such learning contexts.One of the major advantages of using annotation profiles is that they enable change of metadata editor without havingto modify the code of an application. In contrast, the annotation profile is updated to fit the required changes. In thisway, the programmer of an application can avoid the responsibility of deciding which metadata that can be edited aswell as the structure of it. Instead, such decisions can be left to the metadata specialist that creates the annotationprofiles to be used.The Annotation Profile Model can be divided into two models, the Graph Pattern Model that holds information onwhat parts of the metadata that can be edited, and the Form Template Model that provides information about how thedifferent parts of the metadata editor should be structured. An instance of the Graph Pattern Model is called a graphpattern, and it defines which parts of the metadata that the annotation profile will be editable. The author hasdeveloped an approach to how this information can be used when the RDF metadata to edit is stored on a remotesystem, e.g. a system that can only be accessed over a network. In such cases the graph pattern cannot be useddirectly, even though it defines the structures that can be affected in the editing process. The method developeddescribes how the specific parts of metadata are extracted for editing and updating when the metadata author hasfinished editing.A situation where annotation profiles have proven valuable is presented in chapter 6. Here the author have taken partin developing a portfolio system for learning resources in the area of blood diseases, hematology. A set of annotationprofiles was developed in order to adapt the portfolio system for this particular community. The annotation profilesmade use of an existing curriculum for hematology that provides a competence profile of this field. The annotationprofile makes use this curriculum in two ways:1. As a part of the personal profile for each user, i.e. metadata about a person. Through the editor, created from anannotation profile, the user can express his/her skill/knowledge/competence in the field of hematology.2. The metadata can associate a learning resource can with certain parts of the competence description, thusexpressing that the learning resource deals with a specific part of the competence profile. This provides a mechanismfor matching learning need with available learning resources.As the field of hematology is evolving, the competence profile will need to be updated. Because of the use ofannotation profiles, the metadata editors in question can be updated simply by changing the corresponding annotationprofiles. This is an example of the benefits of annotation profiles within an installed application. Annotation Profilescan also be used for applications that aim to support different metadata expressions, since the set of metadata editorscan be easily changed.The system of portfolios mentioned above provides this flexibility in metadata expression, and it has successfullybeen configured to work with resources from other domain areas, notably organic farming, by using another set ofannotation profiles. Hence, to use annotation profiles has proven useful in these settings due to the flexibility that theAnnotation Profile Model enables. Plans for the future include developing an editor for annotation profiles in order toprovide a simple way to create such profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. viii, 49 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723
Keyword
Metadata, RDF, Semantic Web, metadata editors, metadata authoring
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32818 (URN)978-91-7415-965-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-05-13, D2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 14:59 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
2. Learning Applications based on Semantic Web Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning Applications based on Semantic Web Technologies
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The interplay between learning and technology is a growing field that is often referred to as Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Within this context, learning applications are software components that are useful for learning purposes, such as textbook replacements, information gathering tools, communication and collaboration tools, knowledge modeling tools, rich lab environments that allows experiments etc. When developing learning applications, the choice of technology depends on many factors. For instance, who and how many the intended end-users are, if there are requirements to support in-application collaboration, platform restrictions, the expertise of the developers, requirements to inter-operate with other systems or applications etc.

This thesis provides guidance on a how to develop learning applications based on Semantic Web technology. The focus on Semantic Web technology is due to its basic design that allows expression of knowledge at the web scale. It also allows keeping track of who said what, providing subjective expressions in parallel with more authoritative knowledge sources. The intended readers of this thesis include practitioners such as software architects and developers as well as researchers in TEL and other related fields.

The empirical part of the this thesis is the experience from the design and development of two learning applications and two supporting frameworks. The first learning application is the web application Confolio/EntryScape which allows users to collect files and online material into personal and shared portfolios. The second learning application is the desktop application Conzilla, which provides a way to create and navigate a landscape of interconnected concepts. Based upon the experience of design and development as well as on more theoretical considerations outlined in this thesis, three major obstacles have been identified:

The first obstacle is: lack of non-expert and user friendly solutions for presenting and editing Semantic Web data that is not hard-coded to use a specific vocabulary. The thesis presents five categories of tools that support editing and presentation of RDF. The thesis also discusses a concrete software solution together with a list of the most important features that have crystallized during six major iterations of development.

The second obstacle is: lack of solutions that can handle both private and collaborative management of resources together with related Semantic Web data. The thesis presents five requirements for a reusable read/write RDF framework and a concrete software solution that fulfills these requirements. A list of features that have appeared during four major iterations of development is also presented.

The third obstacle is: lack of recommendations for how to build learning applications based on Semantic Web technology. The thesis presents seven recommendations in terms of architectures, technologies, frameworks, and type of application to focus on.

In addition, as part of the preparatory work to overcome the three obstacles, the thesis also presents a categorization of applications and a derivation of the relations between standards, technologies and application types.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. vi, 95 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2012:13
Keyword
Semantic Web, Linked Data, Web Applications, Technology Enhanced Learning, REST
National Category
Communication Systems Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104446 (URN)978-91-7501-534-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-22, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121105

Available from: 2012-11-05 Created: 2012-11-02 Last updated: 2012-11-05Bibliographically approved
3. Adaptable metadata creation for the Web of Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptable metadata creation for the Web of Data
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One approach to manage collections is to create data about the things in it. This descriptive data is called metadata, and this term is in this thesis used as a collective noun, i.e no plural form exists. A library is a typical example of an organization that uses metadata, to manage a collection of books. The metadata about a book describes certain attributes of it, for example who the author is. Metadata also provides possibilities for a person to judge if a book is interesting without having to deal with the book itself. The metadata of the things in a collection is a representation of the collection that is easier to deal with than the collection itself. Nowadays metadata is often managed in computer-based systems that enable search possibilities and sorting of search results according to different principles. Metadata can be created both by computers and humans. This thesis will deal with certain aspects of the human activity of creating metadata and includes an explorative study of this activity. The increased amount of public information that is produced is also required to be easily accessible and therefore the situation when metadata is a part of the Semantic Web has been considered an important part of this thesis. This situation is also referred to as the Web of Data or Linked Data.

With the Web of Data, metadata records living in isolation from each other can now be linked together over the web. This will probably change what kind of metadata that is being created, but also how it is being created. This thesis describes the construction and use of a framework called Annotation Profiles, a set of artifacts developed to enable an adaptable metadata creation environment with respect to what metadata that can be created. The main artifact is the Annotation Profile Model (APM), a model that holds enough information for a software application to generate a customized metadata editor from it. An instance of this model is called an annotation profile, that can be seen as a configuration for metadata editors. Changes to what metadata can be edited in a metadata editor can be done without modifying the code of the application. Two code libraries that implement the APM have been developed and have been evaluated both internally within the research group where they were developed, but also externally via interviews with software developers that have used one of the code-libraries. Another artifact presented is a protocol for how RDF metadata can be remotely updated when metadata is edited through a metadata editor. It is also described how the APM opens up possibilities for end user development and this is one of the avenues of pursuit in future research related to the APM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 104 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2014:17
Keyword
Metadata, Metadata Editing, RDF, Web of Data, Semantic Web, Linked Data, End User Development
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154272 (URN)978-91-7595-330-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-24, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141028

Available from: 2014-10-28 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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