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An RDF Modification Protocol, based on the needs of editing tools
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231). (Knowledge Management Research group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5222-970X
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231). (Knowledge Management Research group)
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231). (Knowledge Management Research group)
2009 (English)In: Metadata and Semantics, Post-proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research, MTSR 2007, Corfu Island in Greece, 1-2 October 2007. Springer 2009, Springer, 2009, 191-199 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of RDF on the web is increasing, unfortunately the amount of editing tools suitable for end users without knowledge of technicalities of the language are not so common. We believe that a vital ingredient for the editing tools to flourish is a working remote modification protocol. This will allow editing tools to be developed separately from triple-stores and make them more flexible and reusable. Several initiatives for remote modification exist already but have not gained wide-spread adoption. In this paper we will show that most of them fall short when it comes to edit arbitrary RDF constructs, especially in combination with typical requirements of editing tools. We will first list these requirements, then propose a solution that fulfills them and finally outline an implementation. With this implementation we will also demonstrate how Annotation Profiles, a configuration mechanism for RDF metadata editors, has the additional feature of making modification requests very precise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2009. 191-199 p.
Keyword [en]
Metadata, remote editing, RDF, SPARQL
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32811DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-77745-0_18ISI: 000261355600018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84892784393ISBN: 978-038777744-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32811DiVA: diva2:412040
Conference
2nd International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research, MTSR 2007, Corfu Island in Greece, 1-2 October 2007
Note

QC 20110426

Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Flexible Authoring of Metadata for Learning: Assembling forms from a declarative data and view model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Authoring of Metadata for Learning: Assembling forms from a declarative data and view model
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the vast amount of information in various formats that is produced today it becomes necessary for consumers ofthis information to be able to judge if it is relevant for them. One way to enable that is to provide information abouteach piece of information, i.e. provide metadata. When metadata is to be edited by a human being, a metadata editorneeds to be provided. This thesis describes the design and practical use of a configuration mechanism for metadataeditors called annotation profiles, that is intended to enable a flexible metadata editing environment. An annotationprofile is an instance of an Annotation Profile Model (APM), which is an information model that can gatherinformation from many sources. This model has been developed by the author together with colleagues at the RoyalInstitute of Technology and Uppsala University in Sweden. It is designed so that an annotation profile can holdenough information for an application to generate a customized metadata editor from it. The APM works withmetadata expressed in a format called RDF (Resource Description Framwork), which forms the technical basis for theSemantic Web. It also works with metadata that is expressed using a model similar to RDF. The RDF model providesa simple way of combining metadata standards and this makes it possible for the resulting metadata editor to combinedifferent metadata standards into one metadata description. Resources that are meant to be used in a learning situationcan be of various media types (audio- or video-files, documents, etc.), which gives rise to a situation where differentmetadata standards have to be used in combination. Such a resource would typically contain educational metadatafrom one standard, but for each media type a different metadata standard might be used for the technical description.To combine all the metadata into a single metadata record is desirable and made possible when using RDF. The focusin this thesis is on metadata for resources that can be used in such learning contexts.One of the major advantages of using annotation profiles is that they enable change of metadata editor without havingto modify the code of an application. In contrast, the annotation profile is updated to fit the required changes. In thisway, the programmer of an application can avoid the responsibility of deciding which metadata that can be edited aswell as the structure of it. Instead, such decisions can be left to the metadata specialist that creates the annotationprofiles to be used.The Annotation Profile Model can be divided into two models, the Graph Pattern Model that holds information onwhat parts of the metadata that can be edited, and the Form Template Model that provides information about how thedifferent parts of the metadata editor should be structured. An instance of the Graph Pattern Model is called a graphpattern, and it defines which parts of the metadata that the annotation profile will be editable. The author hasdeveloped an approach to how this information can be used when the RDF metadata to edit is stored on a remotesystem, e.g. a system that can only be accessed over a network. In such cases the graph pattern cannot be useddirectly, even though it defines the structures that can be affected in the editing process. The method developeddescribes how the specific parts of metadata are extracted for editing and updating when the metadata author hasfinished editing.A situation where annotation profiles have proven valuable is presented in chapter 6. Here the author have taken partin developing a portfolio system for learning resources in the area of blood diseases, hematology. A set of annotationprofiles was developed in order to adapt the portfolio system for this particular community. The annotation profilesmade use of an existing curriculum for hematology that provides a competence profile of this field. The annotationprofile makes use this curriculum in two ways:1. As a part of the personal profile for each user, i.e. metadata about a person. Through the editor, created from anannotation profile, the user can express his/her skill/knowledge/competence in the field of hematology.2. The metadata can associate a learning resource can with certain parts of the competence description, thusexpressing that the learning resource deals with a specific part of the competence profile. This provides a mechanismfor matching learning need with available learning resources.As the field of hematology is evolving, the competence profile will need to be updated. Because of the use ofannotation profiles, the metadata editors in question can be updated simply by changing the corresponding annotationprofiles. This is an example of the benefits of annotation profiles within an installed application. Annotation Profilescan also be used for applications that aim to support different metadata expressions, since the set of metadata editorscan be easily changed.The system of portfolios mentioned above provides this flexibility in metadata expression, and it has successfullybeen configured to work with resources from other domain areas, notably organic farming, by using another set ofannotation profiles. Hence, to use annotation profiles has proven useful in these settings due to the flexibility that theAnnotation Profile Model enables. Plans for the future include developing an editor for annotation profiles in order toprovide a simple way to create such profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. viii, 49 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723
Keyword
Metadata, RDF, Semantic Web, metadata editors, metadata authoring
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32818 (URN)978-91-7415-965-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-05-13, D2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 14:59 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
2. Adaptable metadata creation for the Web of Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptable metadata creation for the Web of Data
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One approach to manage collections is to create data about the things in it. This descriptive data is called metadata, and this term is in this thesis used as a collective noun, i.e no plural form exists. A library is a typical example of an organization that uses metadata, to manage a collection of books. The metadata about a book describes certain attributes of it, for example who the author is. Metadata also provides possibilities for a person to judge if a book is interesting without having to deal with the book itself. The metadata of the things in a collection is a representation of the collection that is easier to deal with than the collection itself. Nowadays metadata is often managed in computer-based systems that enable search possibilities and sorting of search results according to different principles. Metadata can be created both by computers and humans. This thesis will deal with certain aspects of the human activity of creating metadata and includes an explorative study of this activity. The increased amount of public information that is produced is also required to be easily accessible and therefore the situation when metadata is a part of the Semantic Web has been considered an important part of this thesis. This situation is also referred to as the Web of Data or Linked Data.

With the Web of Data, metadata records living in isolation from each other can now be linked together over the web. This will probably change what kind of metadata that is being created, but also how it is being created. This thesis describes the construction and use of a framework called Annotation Profiles, a set of artifacts developed to enable an adaptable metadata creation environment with respect to what metadata that can be created. The main artifact is the Annotation Profile Model (APM), a model that holds enough information for a software application to generate a customized metadata editor from it. An instance of this model is called an annotation profile, that can be seen as a configuration for metadata editors. Changes to what metadata can be edited in a metadata editor can be done without modifying the code of the application. Two code libraries that implement the APM have been developed and have been evaluated both internally within the research group where they were developed, but also externally via interviews with software developers that have used one of the code-libraries. Another artifact presented is a protocol for how RDF metadata can be remotely updated when metadata is edited through a metadata editor. It is also described how the APM opens up possibilities for end user development and this is one of the avenues of pursuit in future research related to the APM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 104 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2014:17
Keyword
Metadata, Metadata Editing, RDF, Web of Data, Semantic Web, Linked Data, End User Development
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154272 (URN)978-91-7595-330-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-24, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141028

Available from: 2014-10-28 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved

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