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Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry)
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2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, e26649- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods: To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results: Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2)) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2) vs. 1.11 m m(-2)) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of similar to 100 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of similar to 200 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance: This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 6, no 10, e26649- p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences Agricultural Science
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33324DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026649ISI: 000296507500103ScopusID: 2-s2.0-80054784209OAI: diva2:414449
QC 20111213Available from: 2011-05-03 Created: 2011-05-03 Last updated: 2011-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Conifer chemical defense: Rugulation of bark beetle colonization and pheromone emission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conifer chemical defense: Rugulation of bark beetle colonization and pheromone emission
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Terpenes and phenols are of importance in conifer defense against insects and pathogens. Knowledge about tree chemical defense is vital for developing practical methods to maintain healthy forests. With the aims of characterizing the defensive chemical induction in Norway spruce Picea abies and demonstrating its ecological function to spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, we measured the terpenoid and phenolic content in the bark of mature Norway spruce trees suffering windstorm, inoculated with Ceratocystis polonica, or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and investigated the colonization and pheromone emission of I. typographus.

All three stressors altered the chemical profile in the bark of Norway spruce. Trees damaged by windstorm had lower proportions of (+)-3-carene and two unidentified stilbenes, and a higher taxifolin glycoside content than trees without apparent windstorm damage; C. polonica inoculation induced extremely strong quantitative terpene accumulation in the wound reaction zone, but only increased the levels of (+)-3-carene, sabinene and terpinolene in the bark near the reaction zone; MeJA treatment generally elicited quantitative terpene accumulation, but the induction differed extensively between individual trees. In addition, logs from MeJA-treated tree showed much stronger wounding response compared to control logs.

The chemical profile of Norway spruce affected the colonization and pheromone emission of I. typographus. In response to fungal inoculation, terpene present in the reaction zone inhibited the colonization of I. typographus in a dose-dependent manner. Host defense elicited by MeJA treatment reduced emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and (S)-cis-verbenol, the two key aggregation pheromone components of I. typographus, and altered the ratio between the two components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 75 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:16
Picea abies, Ips typographus, Ceratocystis polonica, methyl jasmonate, windstorm, stress response, terpenes, phenols, colonization, pheromone emission
National Category
Agricultural Science
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33199 (URN)978-91-7415-884-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-23, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 15:52 (English)
QC 20110503Available from: 2011-05-03 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2011-05-03Bibliographically approved

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